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*1988 - The petrol engine was upgraded to a 4.0-litre '''3F-E''' EFI engine. The FJ62G VX-Series was introduced allowing the Land Cruiser to be sold in Japan as a passenger vehicle.
 
*1988 - The petrol engine was upgraded to a 4.0-litre '''3F-E''' EFI engine. The FJ62G VX-Series was introduced allowing the Land Cruiser to be sold in Japan as a passenger vehicle.
   
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| File:ToyotaLandCruiser.jpg|Toyota Land Cruiser post-facelift (US)
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File:ToyotaLandCruiser.jpg|Toyota Land Cruiser post-facelift (US)
| File:1981-1987 Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ60) wagon (2011-03-10).jpg|1981–1987 Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ60; Australia)
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File:1981-1987 Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ60) wagon (2011-03-10).jpg|1981–1987 Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ60; Australia)
| File:1987-1990 Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ62RG) GX wagon (2009-12-04).jpg|1987–1990 Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ62RG) GX (Australia)
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File:1987-1990 Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ62RG) GX wagon (2009-12-04).jpg|1987–1990 Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ62RG) GX (Australia)
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*The 70 series is also still marketed in Australia as 4-door wagon, 2-door 'Troop Carrier' and 2-door cab-chassis.
 
*The 70 series is also still marketed in Australia as 4-door wagon, 2-door 'Troop Carrier' and 2-door cab-chassis.
   
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File:Toyota Land Cruiser 70 001.JPG|BJ74 Mid wheel base FRP-top 3.4D-T LX (Japan)
|File:Toyota Land Cruiser 70 001.JPG|BJ74 Mid wheel base FRP-top 3.4D-T LX (Japan)
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File:TOYOTA Land Cruiser HZJ75-03.jpg|HZJ75LV Troop Carrier 4.2D
|File:TOYOTA Land Cruiser HZJ75-03.jpg|HZJ75LV Troop Carrier 4.2D
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File:FESA Fire Truck LT359.jpg|HZJ79R Cab-chassis 4.2D
|File:FESA Fire Truck LT359.jpg|HZJ79R Cab-chassis 4.2D
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File:RFS Personel carrier.JPG|New South Wales Rural Fire Service Toyota Land Cruiser Personnel carrier
|File:RFS Personel carrier.JPG|New South Wales Rural Fire Service Toyota Land Cruiser Personnel carrier
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*2008 - Last 80-Series vehicle was built in Venezuela which was the only country producing the vehicles after production ended in Japan in 1997.
 
*2008 - Last 80-Series vehicle was built in Venezuela which was the only country producing the vehicles after production ended in Japan in 1997.
   
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File:Toyota Land Cruiser 80 Van 001.jpg|Land Cruiser with swing-out back-doors (HZJ81V; Japan)
|File:Toyota Land Cruiser 80 Van 001.jpg|Land Cruiser with swing-out back-doors (HZJ81V; Japan)
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File:Toyota Land Cruiser.JPG|1995-1997 Toyota Land Cruiser (US)
|File:Toyota Land Cruiser.JPG|1995-1997 Toyota Land Cruiser (US)
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File:1995-1998 Toyota Land Cruiser (FZJ80R) GXL wagon 02.jpg|1995-1998 Toyota Land Cruiser (FZJ80R) GXL (Australia)
|File:1995-1998 Toyota Land Cruiser (FZJ80R) GXL wagon 02.jpg|1995-1998 Toyota Land Cruiser (FZJ80R) GXL (Australia)
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* 2001 ''4x4 Australia Magazine'' 4WD of the Year (HDJ100)
 
* 2001 ''4x4 Australia Magazine'' 4WD of the Year (HDJ100)
   
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|File:2002-2005 Toyota Land Cruiser (UZJ100R) GXL 01.jpg|2002–2005 Toyota Land Cruiser (UZJ100R) GXL (Australia)
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File:2002-2005 Toyota Land Cruiser (UZJ100R) GXL 01.jpg|2002–2005 Toyota Land Cruiser (UZJ100R) GXL (Australia)
|File:2002-2005 Toyota Land Cruiser (UZJ100R) Sahara 01.jpg|2002–2005 Toyota Land Cruiser (UZJ100R) Sahara (Australia)
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File:2002-2005 Toyota Land Cruiser (UZJ100R) Sahara 01.jpg|2002–2005 Toyota Land Cruiser (UZJ100R) Sahara (Australia)
|File:Land Cruiser HZJ105 2.jpg|2000 Toyota Land Cruiser HZJ105 (Australia)
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File:Land Cruiser HZJ105 2.jpg|2000 Toyota Land Cruiser HZJ105 (Australia)
|File:Land Cruiser HZJ-105.jpg|2000 Toyota Land Cruiser HZJ105 in the Australian outback
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File:Land Cruiser HZJ-105.jpg|2000 Toyota Land Cruiser HZJ105 in the Australian outback
|File:Land Cruiser FZJ105.jpg|Toyota Land Cruiser FZJ105 in a competition event
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File:Land Cruiser FZJ105.jpg|Toyota Land Cruiser FZJ105 in a competition event
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Revision as of 17:49, July 1, 2011

Toyota Land Cruiser
[[File:
80-89 Toyota Land Cruiser
|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1951–present
Class Off-road vehicle (1951–present)
Full-size SUV (1954–present)

The Toyota Land Cruiser (Japanese: トヨタ ランドクルーザー Toyota Rando-kurūzā?) is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles produced by the Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporation. Development of the first generation Land Cruiser began in 1951 as Toyota's version of a Jeep-like vehicle and production started in 1954. The Land Cruiser has been produced in convertible, hardtop, station wagon, and utility truck versions. The Land Cruiser's reliability and longevity has led to huge popularity, especially in Australia where it is the best-selling full-size, body-on-frame, four-wheel drive vehicle.[1] Toyota also extensively tests the Land Cruiser in the Australian outback — considered to be one of the toughest operating environments in both temperature and terrain.[2][3][4]

Chronology

Prehistory

In 1941 the Imperial Japanese Army occupied the Philippines, where they found an old Bantam Mk II, and promptly brought it to Japan. The Japanese military authorities commanded Toyota to make a similar vehicle but to not model the appearance on the American Jeep. The prototype was called the Model AK and was formally adopted by The Japanese Imperial Army as the Yon-Shiki Kogata Kamotsu-Sha ( 小型貨物 type 4 compact cargo-truck ).

Later in 1941 the Japanese government asked Toyota to produce a light truck for the Japan military campaign. Toyota developed a 1/2 ton prototype called the AK10 in 1942. The AK10 was built using reverse-engineering from the Bantam GP. There are no known surviving photographs of the AK10. The only known pictorial representations are some rough sketches. The truck featured an upright front grille, flat front wheel arches that angled down and back like the FJ40, headlights mounted above the wheel arches on either side of the radiator and a folding windshield.

The AK10 used the 2259 cc, 4-cylinder Type C engine from the Toyota Model AE sedan with a three-speed manual transmission and two-speed transfer gearbox connected to it. There is no mechanical relationship between the AK10 and the postwar Toyota "Jeep" BJ. Most of the AK10's were not actively used (unlike the U.S. Jeep) and there are almost no photographs of it in the battlefield.

BJ and FJ

BJ and FJ
Production 1951–1955
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style(s) 2-door Softtop
Layout FR layout
Engine(s) 3.4 L I6 B petrol
3.9 L I6 F petrol
Wheelbase 2,650 mm (104.3 in)
  • 1950 - The Korean War created demand for a military light utility vehicle. The war put a Jeep on Japan's doorstep. The United States government ordered 100 vehicles with the new Willys specs and Toyota was asked to build them.
  • 1951 - The Toyota "Jeep" BJ prototype was developed in January 1951. This came from the demand for military-type utility vehicles, much like the British Land Rover Series 1 that appeared in 1948. The Jeep BJ was larger than the original U.S. Jeep and more powerful thanks to its Type B 3.4-liter six-cylinder OHV Gasoline engine which generated 85 hp (63 kW) at 3600 rpm and 215 N·m (159 lb·ft) torque at 1600 rpm. It had a part-time four-wheel drive system like the Jeep. Unlike the Jeep, however, the Jeep BJ had no low-range transfer case.
  • 1951 - In July 1951, Toyota's test driver Ichiro Taira drove the next generation of the Jeep BJ prototype up to the sixth stage of Mount Fuji, the first vehicle to climb that high. The test was overseen by the National Police Agency (NPA). Impressed by this feat, the NPA quickly placed an order for 289 of these offroad vehicles, making the Jeep BJ their official patrol car.[5]
  • 1953 - Regular production of the "Toyota Jeep BJ" began at Toyota Honsya Plant (Rolling chassis assembly), and body assembly and painting was done at Arakawa Bankin Kogyo KK, later known as ARACO (now an affiliate of Toyota Auto Body Co.).[5] The "Toyota Jeep BJ" Series was introduced alongside the following:
    • BJ-T (Touring),
    • BJ-R (Radio),
    • BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).
  • 1954 - The name "Land Cruiser" was created by the technical director Hanji Umehara. "In England we had another competitor - Land Rover. I had to come up with a name for our car that would not sound less dignified than those of our competitors. That is why I decided to call it 'Land Cruiser'," he recalls.[5]
  • 1954 - The 125 hp, 3.9-liter Type F gasoline engine added for the fire-engine chassis. Models are renamed as:
    • BJ-T (Touring),
    • BJ-R (Radio),
    • BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine),
    • FJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).

20 Series

20 Series
Production 1955–1960
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style(s) 2-door Softtop
2-door Hardtop
2-door pickup truck
4-door Station wagon
Layout FR layout
Engine(s) 3.9 L I6 F petrol
Wheelbase 2,710 mm (106.7 in)
  • 1955 - The Second generation, 20 Series was introduced. It was designed to have more civilian appeal than the BJ for export reasons. It also had more stylish bodywork and a better ride thanks to longer four-plate leaf springs which had been adapted from the Toyota Light Truck. It had a more powerful 3.9-liter six-cylinder Type F gasoline engine, but still only had a three speed gearbox. The interior of the vehicles were made more comfortable by moving the engine 120 mm (4.7 in) forward. The 20 Series still had no low range, but it had synchromesh on the third and fourth gears.
  • 1958 - The first Station wagon Land Cruiser was introduced with an even longer 2,650 mm (104.3 in) wheelbase (the FJ35V; wagon and van). The FJ25 production started in Brazil being the first Toyota vehicle built outside Japan.
  • 1957 - A 4-door Station Wagon was added as the FJ35V. Land Cruisers were first imported into Australia by B&D Motors as FJ25/28 cab chassis with Australian made bodies.[6] They were the first Japanese cars to be regularly exported to the country[7] and a few were initially used in the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme, by sub contractor Theiss Constructions.[8]

40 Series

40 Series
[[File:Toyota Land Cruiser yellow vl|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Toyota Bandeirante (Brazil)
Production 1960–1984
Assembly Toyota City, Japan
Body style(s) 2-door Softtop
2-door Hardtop
2-door pickup truck
4-door Station wagon
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 3.9 L F I6 [9]
4.2 L 2F I6 [9]
3.0 L B diesel I4 [9]
3.2 L 2B diesel I4
3.4 L 3B diesel I4
3.6 L H diesel I6[9]
Wheelbase 90 in (2286 mm)
Length 151.2 in (3840.5 mm)
Width 65.6 in (1666.2 mm)
Height Softtop 76.8 in (1950.7 mm)
Hardtop 78.8 in (2001.5 mm)
Curb weight Softtop 3,263 lb (1,480 kg)
Hardtop 3,427 lb (1,554 kg)
Fuel capacity 18.5 US gallons
Main article: Toyota FJ40
  • 1960 - The 20 Series was upgraded to the now classic 40. Toyota made many production changes by buying new steel presses. Mechanically, the FJ40 was given a new 125 hp, 3.9 liter F engine and the Land Cruiser finally received low-range gearing, but continued the three speed main gearbox. The Brazilian model was rebadged the Bandeirante and received a Mercedes-Benz built Diesel engine generating 78 hp.
  • 1965 - Global production surpassed 50,000 vehicles.
    The Land Cruiser was the best selling Toyota in the United States.
  • 1968 - The 100,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
  • 1972 - The 200,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
  • 1973 - The 300,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
    The first diesel Land Cruiser was introduced for export on long wheelbase models with a six-cylinder H engine[citation needed].
  • 1974 - A four-cylinder 3.0-liter B diesel was offered. The introduction of this engine boosted sales in Japan by putting the Land Cruiser in a lower tax compact Freight-car category than its 3.9-liter gasoline version. Note: the new B diesel engine was different from the B gasoline engine used in the original BJ.
  • 1975 - The 3.9-liter gasoline engine was replaced by a larger, more powerful 4.2-liter 2F unit.
    The FJ55 received front disc brakes.
  • 1976 - United States-version FJ40 Land Cruisers received front disc brakes like the FJ55.
    The Toyota Land Cruiser Association was founded in California.
  • 1977 - The Irish Army took delivery of the first of 77 FJ45 Land Cruisers. Although fast, reliable and with good off-road performance the type tended to rust excessively in the wet Irish climate. A few which did not succumb to the effects of weather were repainted in gloss olive green and survive as ceremonial gun tractors at military funerals.
  • 1978 - The first BJ / FJ40 and FJ55 models were officially sold in West Germany with both diesel (BJ40) and petrol engines (FJ40 /55).
  • 1979 - United States-version FJ40s were updated this year with a new wider, square bezel surrounding the headlights.
    Power steering and cooler were offered in FJ40s for the first time.
    The diesel engine was improved, evolving into the 3.2-liter 2B only in Japan.
    The 3.6-liter H diesel engine was optional in some markets.
  • 1981 - the Diesel version received front disc brakes and the more powerful 3.4-liter 3B engine.
  • 1983 - the last FJ40s imported to the U.S. were 1983 models (mid 1982 to mid 1983). It is unknown how many were imported by Toyota, but many guess the number to be around 300. 1983 FJ40s typically bring a premium for their rarity, though they are not much different from 1982 models (mid 1981 to mid 1982).

50 Series

50 Series
[[File:Tlc2a|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Production 1967–1980
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style(s) 4-door station wagon
Layout Front engine, four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 3.9 L I6 F[9] petrol
4.2 L I6 2F[9] petrol
Transmission(s) 3 or 4-speed manual (J30, H41 or H42)
Wheelbase 2,710 mm (106.7 in)
Length 4,673 mm (184.0 in)
Width 1,710 mm (67.3 in)
Height 1,864 mm (73.4 in)
  • 1967 - Production of the FJ55 began. The FJ55 was a 4-door station wagon version based on the FJ40's Drive-train, replacing the 4-Door FJ45V (I). It was colloquially known as the "Moose". It has also been referred to as a pig or an iron pig. The FJ55 had a longer wheelbase 2710 mm and was designed to be sold in North America and Australia.
  • Jan 1975 saw the F engine replaced by the 2F engine.[9] Unusually for Toyota, the model (e.g. FJ55) did not change.
  • Model 56 is in Japan only, with 2F engine ( Jan. 1975 - Jul. 1980 ).

60 Series

60 Series
[[File:
Toyota Land Cruiser
|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Toyota Samurai (Venezuela)
Production 1980–1990
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style(s) 4-door station wagon
Layout Front engine, four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 3.4 L I4 3B diesel
3.4 L I4 13B-T diesel turbo
4.2 L I6 2F petrol
4.0 L I6 3F petrol
4.0 L I6 2H diesel
4.0 L I6 12H-T diesel turbo
Transmission(s) 4-speed manual H41F or H42F
4-speed automatic A440F
5-speed manual H55F (non-US)
Wheelbase 2,730 mm (107.5 in)
Length 4,675 mm (184.1 in)
Width 1,800 mm (70.9 in)
Height 1,750 mm (68.9 in)

The original Toyota Land Cruiser FJ 60 was available for purchase from 1981 through 1987. It is a front engine four door wagon which has available seating of five to seven. It is well known in the off-roading community for its 4X4 capabilities, despite being somewhat limited by its poor departure angle. The FJ 60 was offered in the following solid exterior colors: Alpine White, Brown, Desert Beige, Freeborn Red, Royal Blue; and in the following metallic exterior colors: Charcoal Gray, Cognac, Gray-Blue, Rootbeer, Sky Blue, Stardust Silver. In contrast to the FJ 62, the FJ 60 exhibits the classic round Land Cruiser headlights which are replicated now on the retro-style FJ Cruiser.

  • 1980 - The 60 series was introduced. While still retaining the rugged off-road characteristics of previous Land Cruisers, the 60 was designed to better compete in the emerging sport utility vehicle market. The 60 was given a variety of comforts like air conditioning, a rear heater and an upgraded interior. The FJ60's "2F" petrol engine was left unchanged from the "40" series while six-cylinder 4.0 litre 2H and four-cylinder 3.4 litre 3B diesel engines were added to the product line.
  • 1981 - Land Cruiser sales surpassed 1 million and a high-roof version was introduced. The 60 was introduced to South Africa when a stock Land Cruiser competed in the Toyota 1000 km Desert Race in the punishing wilds of [[Botswan
  • 1984 - This was the final year for the 40. Specialist suppliers of aftermarket parts and restorers who return old FJ40s to better-than-new condition replace Toyota dealers as the main source of Land Cruiser expertise.
  • 1984 - Alongside the 60, the Toyota Land Cruiser 70 Series were introduced.
  • 1985 - The Direct-injection 12H-T and 13B-T turbodiesel engine were introduced.
  • 1988 - The petrol engine was upgraded to a 4.0-litre 3F-E EFI engine. The FJ62G VX-Series was introduced allowing the Land Cruiser to be sold in Japan as a passenger vehicle.

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