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Toyota Camry
[[File:2007 Toyota Camry Sportivo 01|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1982–present
Predecessor Toyota Celica Camry
Toyota Corona
Class Narrow-body: compact (1980–1998)
Wide-body: mid-size (1991–present)

The Toyota Camry (pronounced /ˈkæmri/; Japanese: トヨタ・カムリ) is a series of mid-size (originally compact) automobiles manufactured by Toyota since 1982, and sold in the majority of automotive markets throughout the world. Between 1980 and 1982, the "Camry" nameplate was delegated to a four-door sedan, known as the Toyota Celica Camry.

The name "Camry" is an Anglicized phonetic transcription of the Japanese word kanmuri (冠, かんむり), meaning "crown".[1] This follows Toyota's naming tradition of using the crown name for primary models starting with the Toyota Crown in 1955, continuing with the Toyota Corona and Corolla; the Latin words for "crown" and "small crown", respectively.[2]

In the United States, the Camry has been regularly the best selling car for the last decade. The Camry also sells very well in Australia, Canada, and a number of Asian markets. Despite international success, the Camry has not sold as well in its home market Japan, or in Europe where sales ended in 2004.[3] For the East and Southeast Asian markets, high-specification Camry models are seen as executive cars. Since the XV30 series, the Camrys sold in these markets have sported revised front- and rear-end treatment. For the 2006 onwards XV40 version, the same was done, although the Australian-designed and Camry-derived Toyota Aurion (XV40) was the donor model. The Aurion features revised front- and rear-end styling and changes to the interior, but is fitted with the same powertrains.

Narrow-body Edit

Nuvola apps kview.svg External images
Searchtool.svg 1980–1982 Toyota Celica Camry

Toyota launched the Celica Camry, a four-door version of the Celica in 1980 for the Japanese domestic market. The Celica Camry was essentially a second generation Toyota Carina with styling revised to resemble the front-end of the 1978 Toyota Celica XX, known as the Celica Supra in export markets.

Further information: Toyota Celica Camry

Camry became an independent model line in 1982 with the V10 series, available in four-door sedan and five-door liftback body styles. At this point, Camry was positioned above the Carina and Corona, two other similar-sized models made by Toyota at the time. The Camry V10 also spawned a badge engineered equivalent, the Vista V10, a more luxurious version of the Camry.

The Camry V20 model debuted in 1986, following much the same formula as its predecessor. Although the liftback body variant was substituted with a station wagon, the Vista derivative continued. When Toyota replaced the V20 in 1990 with the V30, the model series was exclusive to Japan. Automotive tax regulations in that country dictated the retention of a narrower body as utilized in the previous Camry generations. However, overseas demand for a larger Camry resulted in the development of a "wide-body" XV10 model, introduced to North America in 1991.[4] Japan also received this wider model, although it was sold under the "Toyota Scepter" name there.[5][6]

The Japanese market received a new narrow-body V40 series Camry in 1994 to replace V30, yet the wide-body XV10 Camry continued unchanged. The XV10 replacement, the XV20 Camry, arrived in 1996. This new model ceased the era of separate Camrys—a global Camry—and a smaller Japanese-only version. In Japan, the smaller Vista V50 took up the former V40 Camry role from 1998.

V10 (1982–1986) Edit

V10
[[File:1st Toyota Camry|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Toyota Vista (V10)
Production 1982–1986
Model year(s) 1983–1986
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
5-door liftback
Layout FF layout
Engine(s) 1.8 L 1S-L I4
1.8 L 1C-TL(C) I4
2.0 L 2S-ELC I4
2.0 L 2C-TLC turbodiesel I4
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
4-speed A140E automatic
Wheelbase 2,600 mm (100 in)
Length 4,440 mm (175 in)
Width 1,690 mm (67 in)
Height 1,395 mm (54.9 in)
Curb weight 1,045 kg (2,300 lb)

Introduced in 1982, the Camry V10 was sold as a compact four-door sedan and five-door liftback. Unlike the preceding Celica Camry, the V10 series Camry was exported in significant numbers. In the Toyota hierarchy, the Camry was situated above the comparably sized Toyota Carina and Corona. A twin was announced at this point: the Vista.

The design of the first generation Camry fit well within the box-shaped trends of the early 1980s. Additionally, the vehicle size and available options were characteristic of Japanese-designed cars of the time; the Camry was a compact sedan, with a solid but spartan construction and competed indirectly against larger American counterparts.

Toyota-Camry-Hatchback

1986 Toyota Camry liftback

In North America, the Camry was available with a 68 kilowatts (91 hp) SAE 2.0-liter 2S-ELC engine, 1.8-liter 1C-TLC or a 2.0-liter 2C-TLC turbodiesel engine rated at 55 kilowatts (74 hp). Either a four-door sedan or five-door liftback body style could be specified, and could be purchased with either a five-speed manual transmission or a four-speed A140E automatic. In contrast to the rear-wheel drive Celica Camry, the Toyota Camry was a front-wheel drive vehicle built on an all-new platform.

North American-bound V10 Camrys were available in DX and LE trim levels. LE models included additional standard features such as body-colored bumpers, tachometer, upgraded stereo, power mirrors, variable intermittent wipers, et cetera. A minor model update in 1985 included new headlights, taillight update, new gauge fonts, slightly larger front seats, and larger center glove box. The cruise control switchgear on models equipped as such were relocated from the dash to the wiper stalk. DX trim tire size also increased from 165 to 185 millimetres, the same width as the LE trim.

In Australia, the Camry range was limited to a single-grade GLi liftback variant. The sole powertrain offered was the petrol-fueled 2.0-litre (77kW engine) coupled with a five-speed manual or four-speed automatic transmission.

The United Kingdom, and much of Continental Europe got the sedan and liftback versions: these were available in 1.8-liter GLi or 2.0-liter GLi trim levels. A 2.0-liter GLD turbodiesel was also offered, but this is rare nowadays.

V20 (1986–1990) Edit

V20
[[File:2nd Toyota Camry |frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Holden Apollo (JK/JL)
Toyota Vista (V20)
Lexus ES 250 (V20)
Production 1986–1990 (Japan)
1987–1992 (Australia)
1988–1991 (US)
Assembly Australia: Port Melbourne, Victoria
Japan: Toyota, Aichi
United States: Georgetown, Kentucky
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
4-door hardtop
5-door station wagon
Layout Front engine, front-wheel drive / all-wheel drive
Engine(s) 1.8 L 1S I4
2.0 L 3S-FE I4
2.5 L 2VZ-FE V6
Transmission(s) 5-speed S51 manual
5-speed S53 manual (FF I4)
5-speed E52 manual (V6)
5-speed E56F5 manual (I4)
4-speed A140E automatic
4-speed A540E automatic (V6)
4-speed A540H automatic (I4)
Wheelbase 2,600 mm (100 in)
Length 4,520 mm (178 in)
Width 1,690 mm (67 in)
Height Sedan: 1,374 mm (54.1 in)
Wagon: 1,384 mm (54.5 in)
Curb weight 1,240–1,295 kg (2,700–2,900 lb)

The second Camry model premiered in 1986, this time including a four-door hardtop and five-door station wagon, while dropping the liftback body style. The hardtop version was sold only in the Japanese market under the "Camry Prominent" name. Like the previous V10 model, there was again a parallel model for the home market, the Vista V20. The Vista was offered in the sedan and hardtop configurations, with the hardtop forming the basis for the Lexus ES 250 sold in North America from 1989 through to 1991.

Toyota Camry Prominent 1987

1987–1990 Toyota Camry Prominent (V20) hardtop (Japan)

In 1988, an all-wheel drive system dubbed All-Trac was introduced and a 2.5-liter 118 kW (158 hp) (JIS) V6 engine were added as options for the first time. The V6 was fuel-injected with 24 valves, and dual overhead camshafts, much like the upgraded 96 kilowatts (129 hp) JIS four-cylinder engine. In Japan there was a GT model using the older 3S-GE engine as used on the Celica. This particular model also had a factory strut brace similar to an AE92 Corolla and rode on the V6 model's 15 inch alloy wheels. This particular model also had an electronic instrument cluster.

In 1987, Toyota Australia began producing these second generation Camrys in Port Melbourne, Victoria. In fact, it was the first Camry ever made outside of Japan. A 1.8-liter four-cylinder engine rated at 64 kilowatts (86 hp) was standard on the base model, while a twin-cam, multi-valve 2.0-liter straight-four engine and five-speed manual transmission was available on all others. A four-speed overdrive automatic was made optional. All models bar the Ultima had a two-barrel carburettor version of the engine (3S-FC); the Ultima featured an electronic fuel injected (EFI) version of the same (3S-FE). The base engine produced 82 kilowatts (110 hp) and 166 newton metres (122 lb·ft) of torque, with 88 kilowatts (118 hp) and 171 newton metres (126 ft·lbf) for the EFI version. In 1988, a 2.5-liter V6 was introduced. The V6 sat the very top of the range, and was the only model to be imported from Japan. Due to its positioning in the line-up, and the high import duty it attracted, it was very expensive (almost A$30,000), and only sold in small numbers. In 1989, the 1.8-liter engine was dropped, and was replaced with the 2.0-liter carburated engine, until early 1991, when the EFI version of was made standard. This was the result of the introduction of more stringent emission standards in Australia.

Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky, the first wholly owned US Toyota plant, began producing the Camry in 1988, where three trim levels of the second generation Camry were made: the unbadged base model, the DX, and the LE. The country of manufacture can be found by looking at the first character of the VIN. A Camry manufactured in Japan has a VIN starting with "J", a model made in the US starts with "4" and a model made in Australia starts with "6".

The 2.5-liter engine and Camry chassis was repackaged as the upscale Lexus ES 250. The ES 250 was essentially the Japanese-market Camry hardtop. In 1991, anti-lock brakes became optional on the V6, LE, and station wagon models.


V30 (1990–1994) Edit

V30
[[File:Toyota Camry (third generation, V30) (front), Serdang|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Toyota Vista (V30)
Production 1990–1994
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
4-door hardtop
Layout Front engine, front-wheel drive / all-wheel drive
Engine(s) 1.8 L I4
2.0 L I4
2.2 L I4 (turbodiesel)
2.2 L 5S-FE I4
2.0 L V6
3.0 L V6
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in)

The Camry V30 was introduced exclusively to the Japanese market in July 1990. A widened version of this model, the Camry XV10 was also produced, which was designed for international markets. The V30 was mostly identical to the wider XV10 except for the front- and rear-end styling to an otherwise unchanged body. The V30 remained smaller than the XV10 to offer Japanese buyers a sedan that was within Japanese regulations concerning exterior dimensions and engine displacement. The V30 joined the Toyota Corona in this regard. Like before, a Japanese market-only Vista version of the Camry was also offered in both sedan and hardtop body variants. The Camry hardtop was again sold under the "Camry Prominent" title.

After 1991, a four-wheel steering version of the V30 Camry was sold with a 2.0-liter V6 engine, with the name "Toyota Camry V6 Prominent 4WS", and chassis code E-VZV31.[7]

An updated model appeared in July 1992. The scope of changes ranged from a new, larger grille and a revised air conditioning unit. At the same time the ZX touring package appeared in place of GT.


V40 (1994–1998) Edit

V40
[[File:1996-1998 Toyota Camry (V40) sedan (2008-06-07)|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Toyota Vista (V40)
Production 1994–1998 (JDM)
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
Layout Front engine, front-wheel drive / all-wheel drive
Engine(s) 1.8 L I4
2.0 L I4
2.2 L I4 (turbodiesel)
Length 4,625 mm (182.1 in)
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,410 mm (56 in)–1,435 mm (56.5 in)

The Camry V40 appeared in July 1994 exclusively for the Japanese market. The Toyota Vista twin continued on, although the Camry Prominent hardtop was no longer offered; only the Vista was available as a hardtop.

Engines for the V40 were a 1.8-liter (4S-FE type) and 2.0-liter (3S-FE type), and a 2.2-liter turbodiesel (3C-T type). At launch only the 2.0-liter model was available in all-wheel drive mode, although afterwards the 2.2-liter turbodiesel could be optioned with this system.

Toyota updated the V40 in June 1996. In the update anti-lock brakes and dual air bags became standard equipment. After 1998, the Japanese market Camry and international Camry became in-line with each other, with the Vista taking over the V30 and V40 Camry roles.


Wide-bodyEdit

XV10 (1991–1996) Edit

XV10
[[File:1992-1994 Toyota Camry Sedan|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Holden Apollo
Toyota Scepter
Toyota Vienta
Production 1991–1996
1993–1997 (Australia)
Model year(s) 1992–1996
Body style(s) 2-door coupé
4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
Main article: Toyota Camry (XV10)

Toyota replaced the compact V20 Camry with the Japanese market-only V30 series in 1990. However, international markets such as Australia and North America received a widened version of the V30, known as the XV10 series. While marginally larger than the V20, the V30 had to comply with Japanese tax legislation which restricted the car's width to 1,700 millimetres (67 in) and length to 4,700 millimetres (190 in). Particularly in the United States, this narrower model was seen as compromised, thus limiting its sales potential. As a result, the "wide-body" mid-size Camry (XV10) was designed. Introduced to North America in 1991, the XV10 Camry was sold alongside the V30 in Japan, badged as the Toyota Scepter. Toyota chose the name "Scepter" as a reference to the Camry/Crown naming tradition, as a "scepter" is a symbolic ornamental staff held by a ruling monarch, a prominent item of royal regalia.

1994-1995 Toyota Camry Vienta (VDV10) CSX sedan 02

Toyota Camry Vienta CSX sedan (Australia; pre-facelift)

92-94 Toyota Camry LE V6 Wagon rear

Toyota Camry LE wagon (US; pre-facelift)

The smaller V30 Camry varied in other areas besides the size. Although the underpinnings, doors and fenders, and overall basic design cues were common between the two cars, the smaller Camry sported harder, more angular front- and rear-end styling treatment, with the wide-body model presenting a more curvaceous silhouette. This was a departure from the V20 generation Camry which, although had many more rounded panels than the V10 series, was nevertheless generally slab-sided in shape. A two-door Camry coupé was added to compete with the Honda Accord coupé. However, the Camry Coupé was never popular and was dropped in 1997. A two-door Camry would not be reintroduced until 1999, with the Toyota Camry Solara.

The Japanese V30 model was replaced by the Camry V40 in 1994, however, this was also a Japan-only model. International markets instead retained the wider XV10 until it was replaced by the XV20 in 1996. The V40 and XV20 models were sold alongside one another in the Japanese market until 1998. At this time, the Vista V50 took the place of the V40, ending the period of separate Camrys for the Japanese and international markets.

The XV10, at its most basic level, offered a 2.2-liter 5S-FE four-cylinder engine, up from 2.0 liters in the V20 and V30 Camrys. This unit produced 97 kilowatts (130 hp) of power and 197 newton metres (145 lb·ft) of torque, although the exact figures varied slightly depending on the market.[8] Power and displacement increases were also received for the V6 engine. The 3.0-liter 3VZ-FE unit was rated at 138 kilowatts (185 hp) and 264 newton metres (195 lb·ft).[8] An all-new aluminium 1MZ-FE V6 debuted in North American models from 1994, with other markets retaining the 3VZ-FE V6. Power and torque rose to 140 kilowatts (190 hp) and 275 newton metres (203 lb·ft), respectively.[8][9]

In Australia, the V6 engine Camry was badged "Camry Vienta" when launched in 1993, later becoming the Toyota Vienta in 1995.[10] In South Africa, the XV10 Camry was manufactured by Toyota SA in Durban from 1992 to 2002,[citation needed] offering both the 2.2 liter and 3.0 liter engines, although only in sedan configuration. These were also marketed and sold into Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe.


XV20 (1996–2001) Edit

XV20
[[File:2000-2001 Toyota Camry -- 07-04-2011|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Daihatsu Altis
Toyota Vienta
Production 1996–2001
1997–2002 (Australia)
Model year(s) 1997–2001
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
Main article: Toyota Camry (XV20)

The XV20 series Camry was launched in Japan in December 1996. It continued as a sedan and station wagon (called the Camry Gracia in Japan), though the latter model was not sold in the United States. This generation was launched in the US for the 1997 model year.

In 2000, the sedan models received a mid-model upgrade to the front and rear fascias, but remained otherwise similar to the 1997 to 1999 models.

In the United States, the Camry SE was dropped and the base model was renamed the CE for the 1997 model year. Both the LE and the XLE trims were carried over from the previous series. All trim levels were available with either the 2.2-liter I4 or the 3.0-liter V6 engine except the Solara SLE, which was only available with the V6. TRD offered a supercharger kit for 1997 through to 2000 V6 models raising power to 247 horsepower (184 kW) and 242 pound-feet (328 N·m) of torque. A coupe was added in 1999, and then a convertible form in 2000. In contrast to the coupe from the XV10 generation Camrys, the new two-door cars were given a separate nameplate Camry Solara, or simply Solara. They were also a significant styling departure from the sedan. The Solara was available in SE and SLE trims, corresponding roughly to the sedan's LE and XLE trims.

Power was increased slightly to 133 hp (99 kW) SAE for the 5S-FE 2.2 L I4 and 192 hp (143 kW) SAE for the 1MZ-FE V6. Manual transmissions (model: S51) were only available on the CE trim level, LE V6, and any Solara model.


XV30 (2001–2006) Edit

XV30
[[File:2002-2004 Toyota Camry 2|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Daihatsu Altis
Production 2001–2006
2002–2006 (Australia)
Model year(s) 2002–2006
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
Main article: Toyota Camry (XV30)

In September 2001, the 2002 model year Toyota Camry was released as a larger sedan (taking styling cues from the successful Vitz, Corolla, and Camry Solara), but without a station wagon for the first time. Due to station wagons losing popularity to minivan and crossover SUVs, the Camry wagon was replaced by the Highlander SUV, which utilizes the Camry's platform.

Until the 2003 model year, the Camry Solara remained on the XV20 series chassis, and received only minor styling upgrades to the front and rear ends. However, the Solara did receive the same 2.4-liter 2AZ-FE I4 engine that was available on the Camry sedan. The US received three engine options, a 2.4-liter inline-four, a 3.0-liter V6, and a 3.3-liter version of the same, which was only available for the Camry's sportier "SE" model.


XV40 (2006–present) Edit

XV40
[[File:Toyota Camry LE|frameless|upright=1.25|alt=]]
Also called Daihatsu Altis
Production 2006–present
Model year(s) 2007–present
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
Related Toyota Aurion (XV40)
Main article: Toyota Camry (XV40)

The XV40 Camry was introduced at the 2006 North American International Auto Show alongside a hybrid version and went on sale in March 2006 for the 2007 model year. Toyota completely redesigned the Camry giving it a sleeker design. Toyota normally begins selling the Camry in September but cut the previous model's lifespan to 4.5 years instead of 5 years.

Power comes from a choice of four and six-cylinder engines. For 2010, power was increased to 169, versus the 158 from 2007 to 2009. Power locks, stability control, and traction control were also made standard for 2010. The 2.4-liter 2AZ-FE I4 engine was carried over and produced 158 horsepower (118 kW). It came with a five-speed manual or five-speed automatic transmission. The 3.5-liter 2GR-FE V6 in contrast came with a new six-speed automatic and produced 268 horsepower (200 kW).[11] The Camry was facelifted in 2009 for the 2010 model year with a redesigned fascia, taillights, and an all-new 2.5-liter 2AR-FE four-cylinder engine with a new six-speed automatic transmission. The 2.5-liter engine produces 169 horsepower (126 kW) for the base, LE, XLE 4 cylinder models, and for the "SE" 4 cylinder; engine output is 179 horsepower (133 kW).

The XV40 series Camry is the first in which the Camry has been available as a gasoline/electric hybrid. The Camry Hybrid utilizes Toyota’s second generation Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) and a 2AZ-FXE four-cylinder with 110 kilowatts (150 hp) in conjunction with a 30 kilowatts (40 hp) electric motor for a combined output of 140 kilowatts (190 hp).[12]


Sales Edit

Country 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
United States 52,651 93,725 128,143 151,767 186,623 225,322 255,252
Country 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
United States 283,042 262,531 284,751 297,836 319,718 326,632 357,359 394,397 427,308 445,696
Country 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Canada 15,524[13]
United States 422,961[14] 388,512 434,145[15] 413,296 426,990[16] 431,703 448,445[17] 473,108 436,617[18] 356,824[19]
Country 2010
United States 327,804[20]

References Edit

  1. Robinson, Aaron (February 2007), "2007 Honda Accord vs. Nissan Altima, Kia Optima, Saturn Aura, Toyota Camry, Chrysler Sebring", Car and Driver (Hachette Filipacchi Media U.S.), http://www.caranddriver.com/reviews/comparisons/07q1/2007_honda_accord_vs._nissan_altima_kia_optima_saturn_aura_toyota_camry_chrysler_sebring-comparison_tests. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="2009-07-11">2009-07-11</time>. 
  2. (2002) Giants of Japan: The Lives of Japan's Most Influential Men and Women. New York City: Kodansha America, 63. ISBN 1568363249. 
  3. Ciferri, Luca (February 2006). "Toyota says 'No' to Camry for Europe". Automotive News Europe. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved on 2009-03-21.
  4. MacKenzie (1997), p. 37. "The genesis of the Camry's remarkable cultural crossover lay in Toyota's decision to build its predecessor in the US. Realising American buyers wanted more shoulder room, Toyota designed two versions – one which met the Japanese market requirement for a car under the 1.7m width limit, and a 'wide-body' version to be built in the US and Australia".
  5. "Toyota Model Made in U.S. Is Offered for Sale in Japan". The New York Times. The New York Times Company (1992-09-08). Retrieved on 2009-04-10.
  6. Huellmantel and Vaghefi (1999), p. 386. "In August of [1992], import and sales of a new station wagon manufactured by Toyota in Georgetown, KY, commenced. The car, called the Scepter, was the first U.S.-built vehicle Toyota will import for sale in Japan. It is a right hand-drive version of the Camry wagon, which was introduced to the U.S. in April 1992."
  7. "Toyota Camry V6 Prominent 4WS". Japan-partner.com. Retrieved on 2009-10-06.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Power figures measured in accordance with the SAE standard, as quoted for the North American models.
  9. "1992-1996 Toyota Camry Full Review". HowStuffWorks. Publications International. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  10. "NRMA Used Car Review - Toyota Camry (1993-1997)". NRMA (August 2002). Retrieved on 2010-12-06.
  11. "2007 Toyota Camry Specs". JB car pages. Retrieved on 2008-08-10.
  12. "2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid Specs". JB car pages. Retrieved on 2008-08-10.
  13. "Strada: Canadian Sales in 2009". Canadian Sales in 2009 (2010-01-25). Retrieved on 2010-12-09.
  14. "Toyota Sets Sales Record for Sixth Year in a Row". The Auto Channel (2002-01-03). Retrieved on 2010-12-09.
  15. "Toyota Announces Best Sales Year in Its 46-Year History, Breaks Sales Record for Eighth Year in a Row". The Auto Channel (2004-01-05). Retrieved on 2010-12-09.
  16. "Toyota Reports 2005 and December Sales". The Auto Channel (2006-01-04). Retrieved on 2010-12-09.
  17. "Toyota Reports 2007 and December Sales". The Auto Channel (2008-01-03). Retrieved on 2010-12-09.
  18. "Toyota Reports 2008 and December Sales". The Auto Channel (2009-01-05). Retrieved on 2010-12-09.
  19. "Toyota Reports December 2009 and Year 2009 Sales". Theautochannel.com (2010-01-05). Retrieved on 2010-04-05.
  20. "Toyota Reports 2010 and December Sales". The Truth About Cars (2010-01-04). Retrieved on 2011-01-08.

Bibliography Edit

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