The Standard Motor Company was founded in Coventry, England in 1903 by Reginald Walter Maudslay (1871-1934). The Standard name was last used in Britain in 1963, and in India in 1987.
The company was set up in a small factory in Much Park Street, Coventry, England and employed seven people to assemble the first car, powered by a single cylinder engine with three speed gearbox and shaft drive to the rear wheels. This was soon replaced by a two cylinder model quickly followed by three and four cylinder versions and in 1905 the first six. As well as supplying complete chassis, the company found a good market in selling engines for fitting to other cars, especially where the owner was looking for more power. The company took a stand at the 1905 London Motor Show in Crystal Palace where a London Dealer, Charles (later Sir Charles) Friswell agreed to take the entire factory output. In 1907 Friswell became Chairman of the company and worked hard raising its profile culminating in supplying 70 cars for King George V and his entourage at the 1911 Delhi Royal Durbah. Friswell sold his interest in Standard in 1912 to C.J. Band and Siegfried Bettmann the founder of the Triumph Motor Cycle Company which later became the Triumph Motor Company. In 1914 Standard became a public company.
First World WarEdit
During World War I, the company produced over 1000 aircraft including the Royal Aircraft Factory BE12, Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8, Sopwith Pup and Bristol F.2 Fighter in a new works at Canley opened in 1916 which would become the main centre of operations in future.
Civilian car production restarted in 1919 with a range of small cars and by 1924 the company had a share of the market comparable to Austin, making over 10,000 cars in 1924, but by the late 1920s profits had fallen dramatically due to heavy reinvestment, a failed export contract and poor sales of the larger cars. In 1929 Captain John Black joined the board from Hillman as joint Managing Director and one thing he encouraged was the supply of chassis to external coachbuilders such as Jensen, Avon and Swallow Sidecar Company (which would become Jaguar). Reginald Maudslay left the company in 1934, and died shortly afterwards at the age of 64.
In the 1930s, fortunes improved with new models, the Standard Nine and Standard Ten which addressed the low to mid range market and at the Motor Show of 1935 the new range of Flying Standards was announced with semi streamlined bodies.
The Southwards Car Museum on the Kapiti Coast, New Zealand has on display a Standard Flying V8 registered with an English number plate and which it claims only 350 were made. They state in their exhibit that 9 still exist in the world and New Zealand originally had 3 of them. The engine was a 20hp Side Valve (90 degrees) V8 and the car had a listed top speed of 85 mph (137 km/h). It cost 349 pounds sterling when new.
World War IIEdit
During World War II, the company continued to produce its cars but now mainly fitted with utility bodies ("Tillies"). However, the most famous war time product was the Mosquito aircraft, mainly the FB VI version of which over 1100 were made. 750 Airspeed Oxfords were also made as well as 20,000 Bristol Mercury VIII engines, and 3,000 Bristol Beaufighter fuselages.
Other wartime products included 4000 Standard Beaverette a light armoured cars and a lightweight "Jeep" type vehicle.
The Post War yearsEdit
With peace the pre-war Standard Eight and Twelve cars were quickly back in production. Of greater significance was, in 1945, the purchase arranged by Sir John Black for £75,000 of the Triumph Motor Company, which had gone into receivership in 1939. Triumph was reformed as a wholly owned subsidiary of Standard called "Triumph Motor Company (1945) Limited". Also, a lucrative deal was arranged to build the small Ferguson tractor which helped fill some of the large war time factory space. This arrangement was seen primarily by Black as a means to securing increased profits to fund new car development. The Ferguson company later bought the factory in Coventry.
A one-model policy for the Standard marque (alongside a range of new Triumphs) was adopted in 1948 with the introduction of the Standard Vanguard, which was styled on American lines by Walter Belgrove, and replaced all the carry-over pre-war models. The beetle-back Vanguard Phase 1 was replaced in 1953 by the notch-back Phase 2 and in 1955 by the all-new Phase 3, which gave rise to variants such as the Sportsman, Ensign, Vanguard Vignale and Vanguard Six.
The one-model policy lasted until 1953 when a new Standard Eight small car was added. In 1954 the Eight was supplemented by the slightly more powerful Standard Ten which featured a wider chrome grill: the Ten was followed in its turn in 1957 by the Standard Pennant featuring (to modern eyes) implausibly prominent tail fins, but otherwise little altered structurally from the 1953 Standard Eight. An option for the Ten, and standard fitment to the Pennant, was the Gold Star engine, tuned for higher power and torque over the standard 948 cc unit. Another tuning package, featuring a different camshaft and twin carburetors, was available from dealers.
As well as an overdrive for the gearbox, an option for the Eight, Ten and Pennant was the Standrive, a semi-manual transmission that automatically operated the clutch during gearchanges.
1958 saw the launch of the Standard Atlas panel van and pick up, a cab over engine design. It initially used the 948 cc engine from the Standard 10, making the resulting vehicle woefully underpowered, even with its 6.66:1 final drive ratio. In 1961, the Atlas Major was introduced, and sold alongside the original 948 cc Atlas. This variant was powered by the Standard 1670 cc wet-liner motor, as used with different capacities in the Vanguard cars, and the Ferguson tractor. The same motor was also used in Triumph TR2, TR3 and TR4 sports cars. To use this larger engine, a substantial redesign of the cab interior and forward chassis was necessary. The vehicles were of a high standard but not competitively priced, which resulted in relatively fewer sales. In 1963 the Atlas Major became the Standard 15, with a new long wheelbase variant, with 2138 cc engine, became the Standard 20. Later that year, the Standard name was dropped by Leyland, and these models were hastily rebranded as Leyland 15 and 20. By 1968 when production ended in the UK, all variants were powered by the 2138 cc engine and badged as Leyland 20s. As a point of interest, these vehicles were badged as "Triumphs" for export to Canada, and possibly other overseas markets.
By the later 1950s the small Standards were losing out in the UK market place to more modern competitor designs, and the Triumph name was felt to be more marketable; hence the 1959 replacement for the Eight, Ten and Pennant was badged as the Triumph Herald; with substantial mechanical components carried over from the small Standards. Despite the separate chassis and independent rear suspension, the differential, hubs, brakes, engine and gearbox were all common to the last Standard Pennants.
Overseas assembly plants were opened in Australia, Canada, India and South Africa. Sir John Black stepped down from control of the company in 1954. Ill health was cited as the 'official' reason for his resignation but it is now known the Board of Directors requested he should leave. His deputy and long-time personal assistant, Alick Dick, took over. The company started looking for partners to enable continued expansion and talks were held with Chrysler, Massey-Harris-Ferguson, Rootes, Rover and Renault but these came to nothing.
The Standard-Triumph company was eventually taken over in 1960 by Leyland Motors Ltd who paid £20 million and the last Standard was produced in the UK in 1963, when the final Vanguard models were replaced by the Triumph 2000. Triumphs continued when Leyland became British Leyland Motor Corporation (later BL) in 1968. The Standard brand has been unused in Europe since then and the Triumph or Rover Triumph BL subsidiary used the former Standard engineering and production facilities at Canley in Coventry until the plant was closed in 1980.
BMW acquired the Standard and Triumph brands following its purchase of BL's successor Rover Group in 1994. When most of Rover was sold off in 2000 BMW kept the Standard brand along with Triumph, MINI and Riley. The management of British Motor Heritage Ltd, gained the rights to the Standard Brand upon their management purchase of this company from BMW in 2001, (reference BMH website linked below)
There was talk of a possible revival of the Standard name by MG Rover for its importation of the TATA Indica (reference Channel 4 website below). However, for reasons relating to the ownership of the brand by BMW, the car was finally launched as the CityRover.
Standard in IndiaEdit
- Main article: Standard (Indian automobile)
However, the Standard name lasted into the 1980s in India, where Standard Motor Products, Madras manufactured the Triumph Herald with the basic 948 cc engine as the Standard Herald in the 1960s, eventually with additional four-door and five-door estate models exclusively for the Indian market.
After 1970, Standard Motor Products split with British Leyland, and introduced a bodily restyled four-door saloon based on the Herald called the Standard Gazel in 1971, using the same 948 cc engine but with a live rear axle, as the Herald's 'swing-axle' one was not liked much by Indian buyers and mechanics alike. The Gazel was built in small numbers — it has been suggested that it did so to keep its manufacturer's licence — until 1977. With the company concentrating solely on producing commercial vehicles based on the Leyland 20, badged as Standard 20, production of Standard cars ceased until the Standard 2000, a rebadged Rover SD1, was launched in 1985. The car rode higher and had a slightly modified old 1991 cc Standard Vanguard engine, as the company could not procure the license to use the original Rover engine on this car, and was thus not successful, apart from the reasons that it faced competition from cars with Japanese and other newer, fuel-efficient technology in India. It ceased production in 1987 and was the last car to bear the Standard name.
British car modelsEdit
Pre World War 1Edit
|1903||6 hp||1006 cc side valve single cylinder|
|1904-1905||12/15||1926 cc side valve 2 cylinder|
|1905||16 hp||3142 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1905-1908||18/20||4714 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1906||10 hp||631 cc side valve 2 cylinder|
|1906||16/20||3531 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1906||24/30||5232 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1906-1912||50 hp||11734 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1907||15 hp||1593 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1907-1908||30 hp||5297 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1908-1911||20 hp||4032 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1908-1911||40 hp||6167 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1909-1911||16 hp||2688 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1910-1911||12 hp||1656 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1911-1914||20 hp||3620 cc (3336 cc from 1913) side valve 6 cylinder|
|1911-1912||15 hp||2368 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1912||25 hp||4032 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1913-1918||9.5 hp Model S||1087 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1919-1921||9.5 hp Model SLS||1328 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1921-1923||8 hp||1087 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1921-1923||11.6 hp SLO||1598 cc ohv 4 cylinder|
|1922-1926||13.9 hp SLO-4||1307 cc ohv 4 cylinder|
|1923-1927||11.4 hp V3||1307 cc ohv 4 cylinder|
|1926-1928||13.9 hp V4||1944 cc ohv 4 cylinder|
|1927-1928||18/36 hp||2230 cc ohv 6 cylinder|
|1927-1930||9 hp||1153 or 1287 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1929-1933||15 hp||1930 or 2054 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1930-1933||9.9 hp Big Nine||1287 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1931-1935||20 hp Envoy||2552 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1932-1933||Little Nine||1006 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1932-1933||Little Twelve||1337 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1932-1933||Big Twelve||1497 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1934||12/6||1497 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1934-1935||10/12 Speed Model||1608 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1934-1936||Nine||1052 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1934-1936||Ten||1343 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1934-1936||Twelve||1608 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1934-1936||Sixteen||2143 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1935-1936||Twenty||2664 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1937-1938||Flying Ten||1267 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1937-1940||Flying Twelve||1608 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1937-1940||Flying Nine||1131 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1937-1940||Flying Light Twelve||1343 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1937-1940||Flying Fourteen||1608 cc or 1776 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1936-1940||Flying Sixteen||2143 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|1936-1940||Flying Twenty||2663 cc side valve 6 cylinder|
|19367-1938||Flying V8||26868 cc side valve V-8 cylinder|
|1938-1940||Flying Eight||1021 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1945-1948||Eight||1021 cc side valve four cylinder||383,139|
|1945-1948||Twelve||1608 cc side valve 4 cylinder||9959|
|1945-1948||Fourteen||1776 cc side valve 4 cylinder||22,229|
|1947-1953||Vanguard Phase I||2088 cc ohv 4 cylinder||184,799|
|1953-1955||Vanguard Phase II|| 2088 cc ohv 4 cylinder|
2092 cc ohv 4 cylinder diesel
|1953-1957||Eight||803 cc ohv 4 cylinder||136,317|
|1954-1956||Ten||948 cc ohv 4 cylinder||172,500|
|1955-1958||Vanguard Phase III||2088 cc ohv 4 cylinder||37,194|
|1956-1957||Sportsman||2088 cc ohv 4 cylinder||901|
|1957-1961||Ensign|| 1670 cc ohv 4 cylinder|
2092 cc ohv 4 cylinder diesel
|1957-1959||Pennant||948 cc ohv 4 cylinder||42,910|
|1958-1961||Vanguard Vignale||2088 cc ohv 4 cylinder||26,276|
|1960-1963||Vanguard Six||1998 cc ohv 6 cylinder||9953|
|1962-1963||Ensign II||2138 cc ohv 4 cylinder||2318|
Military and commercialEdit
|1940-1943||Beaverette||1,776 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1940-1944||12 hp Light Utility||1,608 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1943||Jeep||1,608 cc side valve 4 cylinder|
|1947-1958||12cwt||2,088 cc ohv 4 cylinder|
|1954-62||6cwt||948 cc ohv 4 cylinder|
|1958-1962||10 hp Atlas||948 cc ohv 4 cylinder|
|1962-1963||Atlas Major||1,670 cc ohv 4 cylinder|
|1962-1965||7cwt||1,147 cc ohv 4 cylinder|
Tractors Models Edit
Australian Motor Industries- the Standard associated company in Australia
- List of Truck Manufacturers
- List of Engine Manufacturers
- Commercial vehicles
- Harry Ferguson
References / sourcesEdit
- Wikipedia for base article
- Standard Cars of the mid-1930s
- Standard Motor Club
- Unofficial Austin Rover Resource: Standards of India
- Hari's Motor World—Indian cars
- British Motor Heritage Ltd - British Motor Heritage Ltd
- Unofficial Austin-Rover Web Resource - Austin Rover Web Resource
- MG Rover may revive Standard brand Channel 4
|British Leyland – car companies & marques|
|Jaguar||SS Cars||Jaguar|| Jaguar|
|BMH||British Leyland|| Jaguar|
|Rover||Rover||Rover||Rover|| Austin Rover Group|
Land Rover Group (BL plc)
|Rover Group (BAe)|| Rover Group|
|MG & Rover (BMW)|
|Land Rover||PAG (Ford)|
|Standard||Standard||Standard Triumph||Leyland Motors||British Motor Heritage|
|MG||Morris Garages (MG)|| Rover Group|
|MG Rover Group (Phoenix)|| SAIC|
|Vanden Plas||Vanden Plas|
|Austin-Healey||Austin (BMC) & Donald Healey|
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