|Pinzgauer High Mobility All-Terrain Vehicle|
Pinzgauer 716 (second generation)
|Type||Self-propelled all-wheel drive vehicle|
|Place of origin||Steyr-Daimler-Puch of Graz, Austria|
|Manufacturer||Steyr-Daimler-Puch: until 2000 |
Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom
|Crew||driver, co-driver+8/12 passengers (4x4/6x6)|
|Engine||Inline 4 cylinder Steyr-designed petrol/gasoline engine, or inline 5- or inline 6- cylinder diesel engine|
65 kW (88 PS/87 bhp)
|Payload capacity||2.5 tonnes|
4-speed automatic (Pinzgauer II)
|Suspension||4 or 6 wheel drive|
|400 km (249 mi)|
|Speed||4x4: 110 km/h (68 mph) / 6x6: 100 km/h (62 mph)|
The Pinzgauer is a family of high mobility all-terrain four-wheel drive (4x4) and six-wheel drive (6x6) military utility vehicles. They were manufactured in Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom, by BAE Systems Land Systems until 2000.
Armed forces around the world and civilian users bought them for applications were a SUV was not of suffient capacity as the six wheeled design had supierior load carrying capacity and Off-raod capability.
The vehicle was originally developed in the late 1960s by Steyr-Daimler-Puch of Graz, Austria, and was named after the Pinzgauer, an Austrian breed of horse. It was popular amongst military buyers, and continued in production throughout the rest of the century. In 2000 the rights were sold to Automotive Technik Ltd (ATL) in the UK. ATL was subsequently acquired by Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc. in 2005; in May 2006, Stewart & Stevenson became a subsidiary of the aerospace and defence group Armor Holdings, Inc.. One year later, Armor Holdings was itself acquired by BAE Systems plc, who discontinued the UK-production of the Pinzgauer, which was proving to be vulnerable to mines and improvised explosive devices in Afghanistan. Development work (done in the UK) on the planned Pinzgauer II was evaluated by BAE subsidiary in Benoni, Gauteng, South Africa but no vehicle was ever manufactured.
The original prototype was developed around 1969 and production began in 1971, as successor of the Steyr-Daimler-Puch Haflinger 700 AP 4x4 light military multi purpose offroad vehicle. The Pinzgauer first generation model (710, 712) was produced until 2000 by Steyr-Daimler-Puch in the city of Graz, Austria. It was, and is in use in many armies around the world like Austria, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Albania, and Bolivia. When Austrian millionaire Mr. Stronach took over the shareholder majority of Steyr-Daimler-Puch offroad vehicles; he gave the right to build the Steyr Pinzgauer to Automotive Technik Ltd (now BAE). As of 2009, in the Graz plant, the Mercedes-Benz G Wagon / Puch G offroad vehicles were being built.
The Pinzgauer is one of the most capable all-terrain vehicles ever made. While not as fast (110 kilometres per hour (68 mph)) as the American High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), it can carry more troops. Even the smaller 710M can carry 10 people or two NATO pallets. Both the 4x4 and 6x6 models can tow 5,000 kilograms (11,023 lb) on road; and 1,500 kilograms (3,307 lb) or 1,800 kilograms (3,968 lb), respectively, off-road. It has a range of over 400 kilometres (249 mi) on one tank of fuel, or nearly 700 kilometres (435 mi) with the optional 125 litre tank. The first generation Pinzgauer is available in both four-wheel drive (4x4) (model 710) and six-wheel drive (6x6) (model 712) versions.
The Pinzgauer was designed to be reliable and easy to fix; it is shipped with an air-cooled dual- Zenith 36mm NDIX carburetor(- as in Porsche 956) petrol engine. The engine in the Pinzgauer was specifically designed for the vehicle; it has more than one oil pump so that the engine will not get starved of oil no matter how the vehicle is orientated.
The Pinzgauer has a chassis design which contributes to its high mobility. It has a central tube chassis with a transaxle which distributes the weight more evenly, and keeps the centre of gravity as low as possible. The differentials are all sealed units and require minimal additional lubrication. The Pinzgauer also has portal axles like the Unimog to provide extra clearance over obstacles. The 710 4x4 was the more popular variant, but the Pinzgauer was designed to have a very capable 6x6 configuration from the start. The rear suspension on the back of the 6x6 712 is designed to provide maximum traction in the most demanding circumstances along with increasing its towing, load carrying, and off-road abilities.
During production from 1971 until 1985, 18,349 first-generation 710s and 712s were produced and sold to both civilian and government buyers.
Body type variants
|M||soft top with rear passenger seats (10 passenger total)|
|T||flat bed carrier|
|K||5 door hard top station wagon|
|AMB-Y||ambulance with 3 doors|
|AMB-S||ambulance with air-portable removable shelter|
|M||soft top with rear passenger seats|
|T||flat top carrier|
|K||5 door station wagon|
|W||workshop with air-portable shelter|
|DK||4 door crew cab pickup|
|AMB-S||ambulance, with air-portable removable shelter|
The most common body types are either "K" (hard-topped) or "M" (soft-topped) types.
All the first generation Pinzgauers are equipped with:
- 2.5 litre inline four cylinder air-cooled engine. An exception was made on certain 712 variants towards the end of production that came with a 2.7 litre air-cooled four cylinder engine. This was primarily on ambulances.
- Five-speed manual transmission with two-speed transfer case
- four-wheel-drive or six-wheel-drive with on-the-fly hydraulic differential locks
- Fully independent suspension
- Backbone chassis tube
- Integrated differentials
- 24 volt electrical system
- Vacuum assisted drum brakes
- Portal axles to give extra clearance
In 1980, Steyr-Daimler-Puch started development on a second generation Pinzgauer. After six years of research and development, the initial second generation Pinzgauer II rolled off the assembly line in 1986. In 2000, Magna, who bought Steyr-Daimler-Puch, sold its rights to the Pinzgauer to Automotive Technik in the UK. They took over production of the Pinzgauer, and still make it to this day. The Pinzgauer is now owned and produced by BAE Systems Land Systems in Guildford, Surrey.
The four-wheel drive (4x4) model is now called a 716, and the six-wheel drive (6x6) model is now called a 718. The same letter body type designations apply. The new 716 has the same payload rating as the old 712, and the new 718 also has a similarly higher payload capacity.
There were a few minor changes to the design of the Pinzgauer II:
- Inline six cylinder Volkswagen Group Turbocharged Direct Injection diesel engine[clarification needed]
- ZF Friedrichshafen four-speed automatic transmission, or five-speed manual transmission
- Slightly wider track
- Slightly bigger tyres
- Disc brakes
- Standard automatic transmission, with optional manual transmission
The second generation motor vehicle went through several minor revisions through its life, unlike the first generation which used the same design throughout production. The first second-generation Pinzgauers were designated P80 (1980). It went through a revision in 1990 (P90), 1993 (P93), and an internal combustion engine change in 2002. This was a new Volkswagen Group Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) engine to meet the new Euro3 emissions requirements.
The Pinzgauer is increasingly replacing the Land Rover Defender in the military utility vehicle role; despite its high cost of upwards of US$100,000 per unit. Pinzgauer (or Pinz as it is known to most British soldiers) is more common as a utility vehicle in Royal Artillery units due to its employment as a light gun tractor. A new armoured version called the "Vector" entered service in the British Army in early 2007, as part of an effort to provide safer patrol vehicles for troops in Afghanistan. The 6x6 Vector PPV (Protected Patrol Vehicle), will according to the manufacturer, "Build on the existing proven design, with enhancements that will include a combination of physical protection, as well as the use of sophisticated electronic counter measures to maximise survivability while on patrol". However, the Vector PPV was found to have unreliable suspension and wheel hubs as well as poor protection against improvised explosive devices. It quickly lost the confidence of field commanders and was withdrawn from service.
Many Pinzgauers were sold to military forces (initially Austrian and Swiss) to be used as non-tactical utility vehicles. Typical military roles are as general purpose utility truck, command vehicles, troop carrier, ambulance, and tow vehicle. Roles very similar to other civilian sourced CUCV vehicles like Land Rover in the UK, the Blazer CUCV in the US, and Geländewagen in many European countries.
The New Zealand Army has purchased 321 Pinzgauer vehicles in 8 variants to fulfill the Light Operational Vehicle (LOV) role.
The Malaysian Army purchased 168 2 Ton 4x4 716 Gun Tractors and 164 2 Ton 6x6 718 Mortar Transporters to replace older Volvo C303 and Volvo C304 in their inventories.
The Pinzgauer was also marketed to the civilian marketplace worldwide for use as campers, farm trucks, ambulances, fire-trucks, and rescue vehicles. Likewise, many ended up being used as tourist vans due to their large passenger capacity and stable, reliable platform. Pinzgauers have been used as tourist transports in Africa, Australia, South America, Hawaii, and other exotic locales. Some are still in use today. Pinzgauers were also marketed to- and used extensively by energy companies for oil exploration purposes. A few Pinzgauers were used for off-road racing, including the famous Paris to Dakar Rally and the International Rainforest Challenge in Malaysia.
- German Daimler-Benz Unimog and Geländewagen trucks,
- United Kingdom Land Rover Wolf, Land Rover 101, Reynold's Boughton RB44 Stonefield P3000, P4000, P5000 and P6000
- American High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) "Humvee"
A popular idea in North America and other countries is to import first generation Pinzgauers for individual use. Any Pinzgauer can be imported but, due to the high cost and the difficulty in certifying them, the second generation Pinzgauers are very rarely imported. First generation Pinzgauers are often imported because they are widely available and cheaper. Both Switzerland and Austria have released many 1st generation Pinzgauers into the civilian marketplace; as they converted their fleet to newer trucks. First generation Pinzgauers sold to civilians in Europe are likewise occasionally found and imported.
Vehicles over 25 years old are much easier to import due to a rolling 25 year exemption to United States Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations, and a rolling 21 year exemption for United States Environmental Protection Agency requirements. The first generation Pinzgauers were equipped with typical safety equipment for that era: seat belts, emergency flashers, etc., and have no difficulty meeting US standards for vehicles of that age. In many aspects, the Pinzgauer was better equipped from a safety perspective than many contemporary 4x4s (Jeeps, Land Rovers, etc.) coming from the factory with seat belts, power brakes, integral roll bars, and other safety focused design features. Like most off-road vehicles, the driver has to be aware of the high centre of gravity. As with other 4x4s, it is possible to tip them if driven aggressively or inappropriately.
The first generation trucks are popular with off-roaders worldwide due to their low cost and their ability in off-roading. There are several shops in the USA that deal with importing Pinzgauers from both individual sales and government auctions. Dealers are also found in Canada and other countries.
Slowly 2nd generation Pinzgauers, the 716 and 718 models, are appearing on the retail market in various states and conditions. The government of Malaysia is releasing small batches of vehicles which are now nearly 20 years old, and collectors are slowly wakening up to their availability. UK army surplus vehicles are in poor condition, most having served in Afghanistan or Iraq. Good vehicles are quickly brought by collectors and a small number may be turned into self-contained expedition vehicles, the Pinzgauer being one of the very few vehicles of its size that can successfully be made 'self-contained' due to its forward control cab and large load area.
The Pinzgauer is a highly accomplished off-road vehicle. Its capabilities , in some operational scenarios , are better than that of the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) (Hummer) and The Land Rover Defender.
- 45 degree approach and departure angle
- 100% slope, or until tyres lose traction
- 700 millimetres (27.6 in) fording depth
- Can climb down a 360 millimetres (14.2 in) wall
- 43.5 degree side-slope
- 1000/1500 kg of payload (4x4/6x6)
- 335 millimetres (13.2 in) of clearance (lowest point when fully loaded)
- top speed (4x4): 110 kilometres per hour (68 mph); (6x6): 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph)
- Full engine power available at 4 kilometres per hour (2 mph)
- M body type carries 10 people (4X4), 14 people (6x6)
The Pinzgauer features in the 2011 movie Thor as the research vehicle of scientist Jane Foster (Natalie Portman) and her team.
add your images here
- Mercedes-Benz G-Class
- Land Rover Wolf
- High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV)
- Volvo C303
- Lada Niva
|This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)|
- "the Volkswagen powered Pinzgauer" (PDF). Marshalls Industrial. MI-UK.com. Retrieved on 15 November 2009.
- "What Pinzgauer". SDP-Pinzgauer. SDP-Pinzgauer.org. Retrieved on 15 November 2009.
- "Pinzgauer". BAE Systems. BAESystems.com. Retrieved on 15 November 2009.
- "Pinzgauer II". BAE Systems. BAESystems.com. Retrieved on 15 November 2009.
- "Troops in Afghanistan face delays getting vital equipment, says NAO". The Daily Telegraph (14 May 2009). Retrieved on 2010-02-18.
- The official website of the Pinzgauer's French-speaking users (It's multilingual and there are lot of details)
- BAE Systems official site
- Steyr-Daimler-Puch Pinzgauer technical information site
- Pinzgauer BBS
- good Pinzgauer site in the US
- C. Kieslings Pinzgauer Site
- Pinzgauer in the New Zealand Army
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