- This article deals with hybrid combustion / battery hybrid buses. For alternately powered buses, see dual-mode bus; for fuel cell hybrids see fuel cell bus; for all-electric buses, see electric bus.
- See also: Hybrid electric vehicle
A hybrid electric bus combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. This type of buses normally use a diesel-electric powertrain and are also known as hybrid diesel-electric buses.
Air Pollution and greenhouse gas emissions Edit
A report prepared by Purdue University suggests introducing more hybrid diesel-electric buses and a fuel containing 20 percent biodiesel (BD20) would further reduce greenhouse emissions and petroleum consumption.
- See also: List of hybrid vehicles
Current manufacturers of diesel-electric hybrid buses include Alexander Dennis Limited (ADL), Azure Dynamics Corporation, Ebus, Eletra (Brazil), New Flyer Industries, Gillig, ISE Corporation[disambiguation needed ], Motor Coach Industries, Orion Bus Industries, North American Bus Industries, Daimler AG's Mitsubishi Fuso, MAN, Designline, BAE Systems, Volvo Buses, Wrightbus, Castrosua  and many more.
In the United Kingdom, Wrightbus has introduced a development of the London 'Double-Decker', a new interpretation of the traditional red buses that are a feature of the extreme traffic density in London. The Wright Pulsar Gemini HEV bus uses a small diesel engine with electric storage through a lithium ion battery pack. The use of a 1.9-litre diesel instead of the typical 7.0-litre engine in a traditional bus demonstrates the possible advantages of serial hybrids in extremely traffic-dense environments. Based on a London test cycle, a reduction in CO2 emissions of 31% and fuel savings in the range of 40% have been demonstrated, compared with a modern 'Euro-4' compliant bus.
Also in 2005 GE introduced its hybrid electric shifters on the market. Toyota claims to have started with the Coaster Hybrid Bus in 1997 on the Japanese market. In May 2003 GM started to tour with hybrid electric buses developed together with Allison. Several hundreds of those buses have entered into daily operation in the US. The Blue Ribbon City Hybrid bus was presented by Hino, a Toyota affiliate, in January 2005. Mitsubishi Fuso have developed a diesel engine hybrid bus using lithium batteries in 2002, and this model has since seen limited service in several Japanese cities.
Since 1999, Hybrid electric buses with gas turbine generators have been developed by several manufacturers in the US and New Zealand, with the most successful design being the buses made by Designline of New Zealand. The first model went into commercial service in Christchurch (NZ) since 1999, and later models now operates daily service in Tokyo, Auckland (NZ), Hong Kong, and Newcastle upon Tyne (UK).
New Flyer, Gillig, North American Bus Industries, and Nova Bus produce hybrid electric buses using either ISE Corporation ThunderVolt, BAE System's HybriDrive, or Allison Transmission GM's electric drive system.
The Whispering Wheel bus is another HEV.
Transit authorities that use hybrid electric buses:
Tribrid Bus Edit
- Tribrid buses have been developed by the University of Glamorgan, Wales. They are powered by hydrogen fuel or solar cells, batteries and ultracapacitors.
Plug-in hybrid electric bus Edit
The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) announced the selection of Navistar Corporation for a cost-shared award of up to $10 million to develop, test, and deploy plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) school buses. The project aims to deploy 60 vehicles for a three-year period in school bus fleets across the nation. The vehicles will be capable of running in either electric-only or hybrid modes and will be recharged from a standard electrical outlet. Because electricity will be their primary fuel, they will consume less petroleum than standard vehicles. To develop the PHEV school bus, Navistar will examine a range of hybrid architectures and evaluate advanced energy storage devices, with the goal of developing a vehicle with a 40-mile (64 km) electric range. Travel beyond the 40-mile (64 km) range will be facilitated by a clean diesel engine capable of running on renewable fuels. The DOE funding will cover up to half of the project's cost and will be provided over three years, subject to annual appropriations. 
Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies (HEVT) makes conversions of new and used vehicles (aftermarket and retrofit conversions), from combustion buses and conventional hybrid electric buses into plug-in buses.
See also Edit
- ↑ "Energycurrent.com". Energycurrent.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-27.
- ↑ "Ebus.com". Ebus.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-27.
- ↑ "Eletra, SBC, Brazil". Eletrabus.com.br. Retrieved on 2010-11-27.
- ↑ "ISE". Isecorp.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-27.
- ↑ "Munich starts using the first MAN hybrid city bus | Frontier India Aerospace, Land and Marine". Frontierindia.net (2010-05-25). Retrieved on 2010-11-27.
- ↑ "Castrosua.com". Castrosua.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-27.
- ↑ "Analysis of electric drive technologies for transit applications: Battery-electric, hybrid-electric, and fuel cells" (PDF) (2005). Retrieved on 2009-11-08.
- ↑ "Green 'tribrid' minibus unveiled", BBC (2008-06-05). Retrieved on 2008-06-05.
- ↑ "Energy.gov". Apps1.eere.energy.gov. Retrieved on 2010-11-27.
- ↑ "Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies, Inc (HEVT) | An IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology) Startup in Chicago | Home". HEVT. Retrieved on 2010-11-27.
|This page uses some content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Hybrid electric bus. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Tractor & Construction Plant Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons by Attribution License and/or GNU Free Documentation License. Please check page history for when the original article was copied to Wikia|