|Manufacturer||Ford Motor Company|
rear-wheel drive, body-on-frame (1908–2011) |
front-wheel drive/all-wheel drive (2008–present)
see listing (1908–1978)|
Ford Panther platform (1979–2011)
Full-size Ford is the popular term for a long-running line of Ford vehicles which have been produced in North America with a large degree of similarity since the Model T in 1908, up to the current Crown Victoria, which ceased production in late 2011. The term full-size does not necessarily indicate it was large relative to its competitors, but that it was the largest and most complete model offered by Ford. The Model T's 134-inch overall length makes it substantially shorter than a current-generation Fiesta hatchback (160.1" OAL).
American automobiles in the early years were usually only identified by make and year (such as a 1952 Ford). Typically, companies produced only one distinct model (excluding trim specifications) in a year, and thus nameplates were the exception rather than the rule. Nameplates emerged when companies began selling other cars to augment their lineup. The term "full-size" came in use after Ford introduced compact cars and mid-size or intermediate size classes in the 1960s.
If the Ford full-size line were to be considered as a single shared lineage, it would comfortably be the longest-running in the car industry with staggering collective production numbers. The Crown Victoria and Police Interceptor were produced until September 2011, 103 years after the introduction of the 1908 Model T. By comparison, the longest-running nameplate in the industry, the Chevrolet Suburban (which has also been branded as a GMC and a Holden at various times), has been in use for 76 model years.
- 1 Design commonality
- 2 First generation (1908–1927)
- 3 Second generation (1927–1931)
- 4 Third generation (1932–1934)
- 5 Fourth generation (1935–1936)
- 6 Fifth generation (1937–1940)
- 7 Sixth generation (1941–1948)
- 8 Seventh generation (1949–1951)
- 9 Eighth generation (1952–1954)
- 10 Ninth generation (1955–1956)
- 11 Tenth generation (1957–1959)
- 12 Eleventh generation (1960–1964)
- 13 Twelfth generation (1965–1968)
- 14 Thirteenth generation (1969–1978)
- 15 Fourteenth generation (1979–2012)
- 16 Fifteenth generation (2005–present)
- 17 References
Over a century's time, full-size Fords from North America have been updated to keep pace with contemporary technology and tastes. In addition to the status of largest Ford vehicle, they were distinguished by a front-engine, rear-wheel–drive layout, live rear axle, and body-on-frame construction; unibody construction was introduced in 2005 with the Ford Five Hundred. From 1932 to 2012, a V8 engine was available, being standard from 1935 to 1940 and from 1973 to 2012.
Where the newest generation of full-size cars produced by Ford (those derived from the 2010-present Ford Taurus) fit into this lineage is contentious; though similar in many dimensions in comparison to their Panther-platform predecessor, they are front-wheel drive with a monocoque design, independent suspension, and a V8 engine is unavailable. Likewise, the European Ford Zephyr, the Ford Falcon, and other internationally produced large Ford sedans of the past have major mechanical and cultural differences from the American full-size lineage.
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|Generation||Model T||Model A||Model B/Ford V8||1935 Ford||1937 Ford||1941 Ford||1949 Ford||1952 Ford||1955 Ford||1957 Ford||1960 Ford||Galaxie/LTD
Since the rear–wheel–drive full-size Ford moved to the Panther platform for the 1979 model year, approximately 5,000,000 units have been produced under the LTD, LTD Crown Victoria, Country Squire, Crown Victoria, Crown Victoria P71, and Crown Victoria Police Interceptor nameplates.
Police forces of North America have heavily used full-size Fords for decades because of their preference for V8 power and torque, the pulling power provided by rear-wheel drive, and the robust body-on-frame construction that can be cheaply repaired (important for American police due to usage of the PIT maneuver). However, with the demise of any vehicles with these characteristics from General Motors and Chrysler, the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor has held a virtual monopoly on police cruisers sold in North America since 1996. The Crown Victoria has become equally commonplace as a taxi cab.
First generation (1908–1927)
- Main article: Ford Model T
In September 1908, the lineage of the full-size Ford began as the Model T entered production. The successor to the Model N and Model S, the Model T would become the first Ford to utilize mass production techniques. Produced in over fourteen body styles, over 15 million would be produced in 19 years of production. Although its predecessors introduced the front-engine, rear-wheel drive configuration to the company, the Model T was the first Ford produced in left-hand drive.
Throughout its production run, the Model T saw relatively few changes. In addition to changes to refine its production (which dictated its specification of black paint), technological upgrades were made along the way. Ford added electric lights (in 1910), electric starting (1919), balloon tires (1925), and wire wheels (1926).
As the Model T aged in comparison to its competition, the market share held by Ford began to erode by the mid-1920s. At the end of 1927, the Model A was introduced as its replacement.
Second generation (1927–1931)
- Main article: Ford Model A
Introduced in December 1927, the Model A borrowed its name from the first car produced by the company in 1903. As with the Model T, the Model A used a front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout with body-on-frame construction; an all-new 4-cylinder engine was introduced. As before, the Model A was produced in a wide variety of body styles; in contrast to its predecessor, the car's bodywork was designed by an in-house styling predecessor headed by Edsel Ford. Produced from 1927 to 1931, approximately 4.8 million were produced.
As the Model A was the first all-new design in 19 years, many features were upgraded. The Model A introduced Ford buyers to conventional driver controls; it now had pedals for the brakes, throttle, and clutch as well as a separate gearshift. Safety glass made their automotive industry debut when Ford used it for the windshield.
Third generation (1932–1934)
- Main article: Ford Model B (1932)
For the 1932 model year, Ford introduced a revised version of the Model A. The Model B was introduced with a modernized powertrain and chassis and slightly restyled bodywork. Only five years removed from the last Model T, the Model B introduced Ford and the entire automotive industry to yearly changes for model styling. In 1933, the exterior was redesigned while the 1934 wore a new front end of its own; all three versions rode on the same basic chassis.
For 1932, Ford introduced an option that would remain in the full-size Ford line for seven decades. Developed as a response to the 1929 introduction of the Chevrolet "Stovebolt Six", the Model 18 offered a 65-hp V8 engine for a $10 price premium over the standard Model B. Demand for the V8 was so strong that Ford struggled to keep up. After 1934, the 4-cylinder engine was discontinued; the next 4-cylinder Ford in North America would be the Pinto in 1971.
Fourth generation (1935–1936)
- Main article: 1935 Ford
For the 1935 model year, the Ford lineup was powered exclusively by a V8 engine. Styling changes introduced the first integrated trunks on sedan models and suspension changes increased interior room. In 1936, further updates included the introduction of solid wheels and the integration of the horn into the bodywork.
Fifth generation (1937–1940)
- Main article: 1937 Ford
For 1937, Ford updated its car lineup with minor styling changes. However, the introduction of the De Luxe Ford marked the beginning of expansion of the Ford Motor Company brand lineup. De Luxe Ford was marketed as an upscale sub-brand to bridge the gap between Ford and Lincoln-Zephyr. In 1939, the Mercury was launched; although sharing a chassis with the Ford, it wore a body six inches wider with a wheelbase four inches longer; Mercury would supersede De Luxe Ford as a brand.
As buyer tastes began to change in the late 1930s, certain body styles were pruned from the lineup. 1939 would be the last year for the 4-door phaeton and for single-seat coupes and convertibles (and their rumble seats). A conventional "alligator" hood replaced the "butterfly" hood with its lifting side panels. Ford also made several safety-related changes as well. The dashboard was redesigned (to feature recessed controls) in 1938, hydraulic brakes were added in 1939, and sealed-beam headlights were introduced a year later.
Sixth generation (1941–1948)
- Main article: 1941 Ford
For 1941, Ford introduced an all-new generation of cars and trucks. These would be the final generation of cars produced in the lifetime of both Edsel Ford and Henry Ford. Due to the success of Mercury, De Luxe Ford was changed from a sub-brand back to a trim level within the Ford lineup. The width of the body had now increased to the point where running boards had become vestigial. For the first time since the Model K of 1906, an inline-six engine was available (as a base engine).
From February 1942 to July 1945, civilian production was discontinued as Ford manufactured military products for World War II. As production resumed, Ford released the 1946 model with few changes aside from a new grille. Under the hood, the V8 engine was now shared with Mercury, allowing Ford to break the 100-hp barrier for the first time. In 1947, the last Ford trucks based on the car chassis were produced. For 1948, the F-Series was introduced as a dedicated truck chassis.
Seventh generation (1949–1951)
- Main article: 1949 Ford
For the 1949 model year, Ford redesigned its car lineup with a number of significant changes. The transverse-leaf suspension, seen since the Model T, was replaced by independent front suspension and longitudinal leaf springs. Fenders and running boards were completely integrated into the bodywork.
In 1950, the Ford model line expanded itself further as the division added model names to the lineup (as opposed to Ford Standard or Ford Custom). A year later, an automatic transmission appeared for the first time. Wood-paneled station wagons were now available as Country Squire.
Eighth generation (1952–1954)
- Main article: 1952 Ford
For 1952, Ford updated its cars with mild exterior updates; this generation is distinguished by the introduction of a single-piece windshield. The pedals were remounted from the floor to below the dashboard.
Mechanically, power brakes and power steering became an option in 1954. In 1954, the overhead-valve Y-block V8 replaced the Flathead V8 seen since 1932. At 130 hp, the Y-block produced twice the horsepower as the original 1932 V8.
- Ford Mainline
- Ranch Wagon
Ninth generation (1955–1956)
- Main article: 1955 Ford
In 1955, the Ford car lineup was given a mild update over the previous year, although several features made their first appearance in this generation. Air conditioning was now available as a factory-installed option. The Lifeguard option package, introduced in 1956, featured front and rear seat belts, a padded dashboard, and redesigned door latches. Although this was the first generation of Fords to undergo crash testing, the Lifeguard package was not well received by buyers. Several nameplates in the Ford lineup made their first appearance during this time. Ford introduced the Fairlane, Crown Victoria, and Ranch Wagon as part of the 1955 lineup. Station wagons were now a separate model series from 2-doors and 4-doors.
- Ford Mainline (1955–1956)
- coupe utility (Australia only)
- Ford Customline (1955–1956)
- Ford Fairlane (1955–1956)
- Ford Ranch Wagon (1955–1956)
- Ford Crown Victoria/Crown Victoria Skyliner (1955–1956)
- Ford Courier (1955–1956)
- Ford Parklane (1956)
Tenth generation (1957–1959)
- Main article: 1957 Ford
For the first time since 1949, the 1957 Ford lineup was built on an all-new chassis; a new frame allowed for the use of lower-mounted bodies. As part of the convertible lineup, the Skyliner introduced a new feature: the retractable hardtop. The Ranchero, introduced in 1957, was the first coupe utility pickup sold in North America, predating the Chevrolet El Camino by two years. The Ranchero was developed from the Courier sedan delivery with the bodywork above the cargo area removed.
In 1959, the Galaxie nameplate was introduced.
- Ford Custom (1957–1958)
- Ford Custom 300 (1957–1959)
- Ford Fairlane/Fairlane 500/Fairlane Skyliner (1957–1959)
- Ford Galaxie/Galaxie 500/Galaxie Skyliner (1959)
- Ford Courier (1957–1959)
- Ford Ranch Wagon (1957–1959)
- Ford Ranchero (1957–1959)
- Ford Del Rio (1957–1958)
Eleventh generation (1960–1964)
- Main article: 1960 Ford
In 1960, the subjective term of full-size Ford came into its own, stemming from the 1960 introduction of the compact Falcon. Along with an all-new body, the 1960 Fairlane and Galaxie grew three inches in wheelbase. The sedan delivery and two-door station wagon body styles, in a long decline, ended their production after 1960. In 1961, the FE-series V8, the first big-block Ford engine made its appearance in full-size models. In a step between the inline-6 and the powerful FE-series V8s, the Windsor V8 made its first appearance in 1963.
In 1962, the Ford sedan lineup was expanded further, as the Fairlane nameplate was used for the company's first intermediate-sized car. Sized between the Galaxie and the Falcon, the new Fairlane adopted unibody construction while retaining a rear-wheel drive layout.
- Ford Fairlane (1960–61)
- Ford Galaxie (1960–64)
- Ford Ranch Wagon (1960–62)
- Ford Country Sedan (1960–64)
- Ford Country Squire (1960–64)
- Ford Courier (1960)
- Ford 300 (1963)
- Ford Custom (1964)
Twelfth generation (1965–1968)
- Main article: Ford Galaxie#1965-1968
For the 1965 model year, the full-size Ford platform was given a redesign. To improve ride and handling, the rear leaf springs (a design unchanged since the 1949 Ford) were replaced by a three-link coil-spring design. To comply with federal safety mandates, in 1967 the full-size Fords were updated with a padded dashboard, recessed controls, collapsible steering column with padded steering wheel, and 3-point seatbelts; 1968 models gained side marker lights.
In 1965, the lineup was expanded further with the introduction of the LTD. Originally sold as a part of the Galaxie 500 lineup, coming only as a 2-door hardtop, the LTD became its own model for the 1966 model year. Largely the response to the Chevrolet Caprice and Dodge Monaco, the LTD offered the Ford body and powertrain with an upgraded interior; the standardization of convenience features made the LTD comparable to a Lincoln in specification, though not price.
- Ford Custom/Custom 500 (1965–1968)
- Ford Galaxie/Galaxie 500 (1965–1968)
- Ford Galaxie 500 LTD (1965)
- Ford LTD (1966–1968)
- Ford Country Sedan (1965–1968)
- Ford Country Squire (1965–1968)
Thirteenth generation (1969–1978)
- Main article: Ford Galaxie
In 1969, full-size Fords were given another all-new platform. The vertically-stacked headlamps seen on the previous generation were replaced by horizontally-mounted units; a number of models wore hidden headlamps. After 1972, the convertible ended production. 1972 was also the last year of the 6-cylinder engine; the next full-size Ford powered by fewer than 8 cylinders would be the 2005 Five Hundred.
For the 1973 model year, the LTD was given an all-new body. Redesigned separately from the Galaxie, the LTD and Country Squire would become the sole full-sized Fords until the Custom 500 (intended for fleet sales) made its return for 1975. For the first time since 1940, only V8 engines were available. In a response to federal regulations, the LTD was designed with large 5 mph bumpers. As emissions standards eroded the powertrains under the hood, the LTD/Country Squire were refocused towards features such as their comfortable ride instead of their outright performance.
After 1974, Ford discontinued the Galaxie and Country Sedan station wagon.
- Ford Custom/Custom 500 (1969–1978)
- Ford LTD (1969–1978)
- Ford Galaxie/Galaxie 500 (1969–1974)
- Ford Country Sedan (1969–1974)
- Ford Country Squire (1969–1978)
Fourteenth generation (1979–2012)
- Main article: Ford LTD (Americas)#1979-1982
Necessitated by federal fuel economy standards, the full-size Ford lineup underwent downsizing for the 1979 model year. The full-size Fords were redesigned on an all-new platform. Losing fifteen inches of length and 800 pounds of weight, Ford's full-size car now had smaller exterior dimensions than the mid-size LTD II. In spite of the smaller size, interior dimensions and trunk space increased over its 1978 predecessor. In a move upmarket, the Custom 500 became a Canada-only model, which was deleted in 1981. As the LTD was introduced, Ford began development on its intended replacement, the front-wheel drive Ford Taurus. As fuel prices stabilized and demand for full-sized cars remained, Ford made the decision to continue to produce the Panther platform alongside the Taurus. In 1983, as part of a major model shift throughout Ford Motor Company, the LTD and LTD Crown Victoria were split apart. The LTD Crown Victoria (and the Country Squire) became the sole full-size cars, while the LTD nameplate took over for a facelifted version of the slow-selling Granada sedan.
For 1992, the LTD Crown Victoria was replaced by the Crown Victoria and the Country Squire was discontinued. Styled like a larger version of the Taurus, the Crown Victoria borrowed a nameplate from the mid-1950s Ford lineup. Many features, such as four-wheel disc brakes, ABS, and dual airbags were all-new, and the Windsor V8 was replaced by the Modular V8, the first overhead-cam V8 in an American full-sized sedan.
In 1998, in what would be the final exterior redesign of the Crown Victoria, it received the roofline of Mercury Grand Marquis. For 2003, the frame and suspension were redesigned to improve its handling. After 2007, it was no longer sold to retail customers in North America. On September 15, 2011, Ford produced the final Crown Victoria; it was sold for export to Saudi Arabia.
- Ford LTD (1979–1982)
- Ford Custom 500 (1979–1981, Canada)
- Ford LTD Crown Victoria (1983–1991)
- Ford Country Squire (1979–1991)
- Ford Crown Victoria (1992–2012)
- Ford Police Interceptor (1999–2011)
Fifteenth generation (2005–present)
- Main article: Ford D3 platform
Introduced for the 2005 model year, the Ford Five Hundred was the first all-new full-size sedan from Ford since 1979. Although only three inches longer than the Taurus, the Five Hundred boasted nearly identical interior dimensions to the Crown Victoria (notably by having a larger trunk). It was designed on the D3 platform, a modified version of a Volvo large-car platform. This meant several significant departures from the Panther predecessor. Instead of body on frame construction with rear-wheel drive, unibody design with front-wheel drive was used; all-wheel drive made its first appearance as well.
For the first time since 1991, multiple bodystyles returned to the lineup. The Five Hundred was joined by the Freestyle; branded as a crossover SUV, the Freestyle was functionally the first successor to the Country Squire station wagon in 14 years. In 2008, the Taurus name moved to the D3 platform as part of a facelift; the Freestyle became the Taurus X. In 2009, the Taurus X was replaced by the Flex. For 2010, the Taurus was extensively redesigned; a revived SHO marked the introduction of turbocharged EcoBoost engines. As part of the 2013 model year update, the 2013 Taurus became the first full-size Ford available with a four-cylinder engine since 1934; with the discontinuation of the Crown Victoria, the sole V8-engined Ford car in North America is now the Mustang.
- Ford Five Hundred (2005–2007)
- Ford Freestyle (2005–2007)
- Ford Taurus (2008–present)
- Ford Taurus X (2008–2009)
- Ford Flex (2009–present)
- Kowalke, Ron (1997). Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. Krause publications. ISBN 0-87341-521-3.
- Flammang, James Standard Catalog of American Cars 1976–1999 3rd Edition (Iola, WI: Krause Publications, Inc 1999)
- Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (2004). Cars of the Classic '30s: A Decade of Elegant Design. Publications International, Ltd.. ISBN 0-7853-9873-2.
- Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (2002). Cars of the Fascinating '40s: A Decade of Challenges and Changes. Publications International, Ltd.. ISBN 0-7853-6274-6.
- David L. Lewis and the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (2005). 100 Years of Ford: A Centennial Celebration of the Ford Motor Company. Publications International, Ltd.. ISBN 0-7853-7988-6.
- "Ford, Mercury, Edsel, and Lincoln Production Figures". LOVEfords.com (2007-03-13). Retrieved on 2008-06-16.
- "Ford Model T to Crown Victoria". Edmunds.com (2003-05-08). Retrieved on 2008-06-16.
- "Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor". Modernracer.com (2002). Retrieved on 2008-06-16.
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