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Fig. 1 Animation showing rotating cams and cam followers producing reciprocating motion.

A cam is a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion or vice-versa.[1][2] It is often a part of a rotating wheel (e.g. an eccentric wheel) or shaft (e.g. a cylinder with an irregular shape) that strikes a lever at one or more points on its circular path. The cam can be a simple tooth, as is used to deliver pulses of power to a steam hammer, for example, or an eccentric disc or other shape that produces a smooth reciprocating (back and forth) motion in the follower, which is a lever making contact with the cam.

Overview Edit

The cam can be seen as a device that translates from circular to reciprocating (or sometimes oscillating) motion.[3] A common example is the camshaft of an automobile, which takes the rotary motion of the engine and translates it into the reciprocating motion necessary to operate the intake and exhaust valves of the cylinders.

Cams can also be viewed as information-storing and -transmitting devices. Examples are the cam-drums that direct the notes of a musical box or the movements of a screw machine's various tools and chucks. The information stored and transmitted by the cam is the answer to the question, "What actions should happen, and when?" (Even an automotive camshaft essentially answers that question, although the music box cam is a still-better example in illustrating this concept.)

Displacement diagram Edit

Basic Displacement Diagram

Fig. 2 Basic displacement diagram

Certain cams can be characterized by their displacement diagrams, which reflect the changing position a roller follower (a shaft with a rotating wheel at the end) would make as the cam rotates about an axis. These diagrams relate angular position, usually in degrees, to the radial displacement experienced at that position. Displacement diagrams are traditionally presented as graphs with non-negative values. A simple displacement diagram illustrates the follower motion at a constant velocity rise followed by a similar return with a dwell in between as depicted in figure 2.[4] The rise is the motion of the follower away from the cam center, dwell is the motion where the follower is at rest, and return is the motion of the follower toward the cam center.[5]

Plate cam Edit

Cam Profile

Fig. 3 Cam Profile

The most commonly used cam is the plate cam which is cut out of a piece of flat metal or plate.[6] Here, the follower moves in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the camshaft.[7] Several key terms are relevant in such a construction of plate cams: base circle, prime circle (with radius equal to the sum of the follower radius and the base circle radius), pitch curve which is the radial curve traced out by applying the radial displacements away from the prime circle across all angles, and the lobe separation angle (LSA - the angle between two adjacent intake and exhaust cam lobes).

The base circle is the smallest circle that can be drawn to the cam profile.

HistoryEdit

An early cam was built into Hellenistic water-driven automata from the 3rd century BC.[8] The use of cams was later employed by Al-Jazari who employed them in his own automata.[9] The cam and camshaft appeared in European mechanisms from the 14th century.[10]

See alsoEdit

Other mechanisms that convert between translates between circular and reciprocating motion:

Other mechanisms named "cam" or similar:

  • Dwell cam (used in pairs in sewing machines)
  • Binary cam (for compound bows)
  • Spring-loaded camming device (rock climbing equipment)

ReferencesEdit

  1. "cam definition". Merriam Webste. Retrieved on 2010-04-05. “a rotating or sliding piece (as an eccentric wheel or a cylinder with an irregular shape) in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion or vice versa”
  2. Pennock, G., Shigley, J., & Uicker, J. (2010). Cam Design. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, 4, Oxford University Press, USA., 200. 
  3. Jensen, Preben w. (1965). Cam Design and Manufacture. The Industrial Press, New York., 1. 
  4. Cam Design and Manufacture. The Industrial Press, New York., 8. 
  5. Introduction to Mechanisms - Cams"rise is the motion of the follower away from the cam center, dwell is the motion where the follower is at rest, and return is the motion of the follower toward the cam center"
  6. Jensen, Preben w. (1965). Cam Design and Manufacture. The Industrial Press, New York., 1. 
  7. Introduction to Mechanisms - Cams "The follower moves in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the camshaft."
  8. Wilson, Andrew (2002): "Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy", The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 92, pp. 1–32 (16) http://www.jstor.org/stable/3184857
  9. Georges Ifrah (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quatum Computer, p. 171, Trans. E.F. Harding, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (See [1])
  10. A. Lehr (1981), De Geschiedenis van het Astronomisch Kunstuurwerk, p. 227, Den Haag. (See [2])

External linksEdit

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