|Class||Full-size luxury sport utility vehicle|
|Related||GMC Yukon (Denali) , Chevrolet Tahoe|
The Cadillac Escalade is a full-size luxury sport utility vehicle (SUV) sold by the General Motors luxury brand, Cadillac. It was the division's first major entry into the popular SUV market. The Escalade was introduced for the 1999 model year in response to German and Japanese competitors and to Ford's 1998 release of the Lincoln Navigator. The Escalade project went into production only ten months after it was approved. The Escalade is built in Arlington, Texas. The name Escalade refers to a siege warfare tactic of scaling defensive walls or ramparts with the aid of ladders or siege towers.
The Escalade was originally based on the GMC Yukon Denali, but was redesigned for the 2002 model year to make its appearance fall more in line with Cadillac's new design theme. Today, the Escalade and Escalade EXT pickup are two of only three Cadillac vehicles made outside of the United States. Both the Escalade ESV (Based on the Chevrolet Suburban) and Escalade EXT (based on the Avalanche sport utility truck) were made in Silao, Mexico, before the 2006 redesign; the new Escalade ESV is sourced from Arlington, Texas. The Escalade competes with the Range Rover Sport, Infiniti QX56, Mercedes-Benz GL-Class, Lexus LX, Toyota Land Cruiser, Land Rover LR3 and Lincoln Navigator.
|Assembly||Arlington, Texas, USA|
|Body style(s)||5-door SUV|
|Layout||Front engine, four-wheel drive|
|Platform||GM GMT400 platform|
|Engine(s)||5.7 L Vortec V8|
|Wheelbase||117.5 in (2985 mm)|
|Length||201.2 in (5110 mm)|
|Width||77.0 in (1956 mm)|
|Height||74.3 in (1887 mm)|
The introduction of the Lincoln Navigator in the 1998 model year necessitated that General Motors be able to compete in the burgeoning American market for full-size luxury-type trucks. This generation was only a five-seat SUV. The first Escalade was a largely unsuccessful endeavor from the start. Fearing the growing hegemony of the Lincoln Navigator, the Escalade was rushed through the design process to reach dealers quickly. Essentially little more than a badge-engineered GMC Yukon Denali, the SUV's aesthetics were similar to the Denali and the final vehicle was smaller than the Navigator. The Escalade's under were borrowed from the Denali line, with the GMC logos on the center caps replaced with Cadillac's crest. The Escalade also used the same 5.7 L Vortec 5700 V8 at 255 hp (190 kW), which was underpowered compared to the Navigator's 300 hp (220 kW) and 365 lb·ft (495 N·m) 5.4 Liter InTech V-8. All first-generation Escalades featured Autotrac selectable 4x4. The interior featured all leather seats with the Escalade logo sprinkled all over the car. It also had a Bose surround system–a first for SUVs. The Escalade also used a slightly different gauge cluster from the standard Tahoes/Yukons. The Escalade gauges featured white needles instead of the standard orange and the speedometer reads to 120 mph.
According to information from the Highway Loss Data Institute, the Cadillac Escalade is the most stolen vehicle in the U.S.
Arlington, Texas, USA]|
Silao, Mexico (EXT, ESV)
Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
4-door sport utility truck
|Layout||Front engine, rear-wheel drive / all wheel drive|
|Platform||GM GMT800 platform|
5.3 L Vortec V8|
6.0 L Vortec HO V8
116.0 in (2946 mm)|
130.0 in (3302 mm) (ESV/EXT)
198.9 in (5052 mm)|
221.4 in (5624 mm) (ESV/EXT)
78.9 in (2004 mm)|
79.5 in (2019 mm) (ESV/EXT)
76.5 in (1943 mm)|
75.7 in (1923 mm) (ESV/EXT)
75.0 in (1905 mm) (ESV Platinum)
5,800 lbs |
The "StabiliTrak" stability control system was upgraded to a four-wheel version for 2003 and power-adjustable pedals were added. For 2004, 20-inch chrome wheels were offered, and XM Satellite Radio, second-row bucket seats, and a tire pressure monitoring system were made standard on all Escalades except the EXT. The 5.3 L engine was dropped for 2005 and the OnStar system was upgraded. Also in 2005, the Platinum edition was introduced at the price of $71,025; it featured heated and cooled cup holders, 20 inch chrome wheels, moon roof, three DVD screens, and chrome accents on the steering wheel and grille.
- 2002–2003 5.3L LM7 Vortec V8, 285 horsepower (213 kW)
- 2004–2006 5.3L LM7 Vortec V8, 295 horsepower (220 kW)
- 2002–2006 6.0L LQ9 HO Vortec V8, 345 horsepower (257 kW)
The HO Vortec takes premium fuel while the other two engines can take a lower grade.
- 2002–2006 Cadillac Escalade
- 2002–2006 Cadillac Escalade EXT
- 2003–2006 Cadillac Escalade ESV
- 2004–2006 Cadillac Escalade ESV Platinum
|Also called||Cadillac DUU (RUS)|
Arlington, Texas, USA|
Silao, Mexico (EXT)
Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia/
4-door sport utility truck
|Layout||Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive|
|Engine(s)||6.2 L Vortec V8|
116.0 in (2946 mm)|
130.0 in (3302 mm) (ESV/EXT)
202.5 in (5144 mm)|
222.9 in (5662 mm) (ESV)
222.0 in (5639 mm) (EXT)
79.0 in (2007 mm)|
79.1 in (2009 mm) (EXT only)
74.7 in (1897 mm) (2007–09 2WD)|
74.5 in (1892 mm) (EXT & 2007–09 ESV)
74.3 in (1887 mm) (2007–09 4WD)
2010– SWB: 75.9 in (1928 mm)
2010– ESV: 73.1 in (1857 mm)
GMC Yukon XL
The Escalade moved to the new GMT900 platform for the 2007 model year. Its introduction was accelerated as sales began slipping. The regular Escalade was again joined by a stretched ESV version as well as a new EXT sport utility truck. The 2007 Escalade was the official vehicle of Super Bowl XL, with MVP Hines Ward being awarded one of the first Escalades produced.
Production of the redesigned Escalade began at Arlington Assembly in January 2006. It is priced from US$57,280, though the rear-wheel drive version at this price was not produced until August. The more expensive all-wheel drive version was produced first, followed by the long wheelbase ESV and EXT pickup (the latter sourced from the Silao, Mexico, plant) in June.
The Escalade uses an all-aluminum 6.2 L Vortec V8. This pushrod engine includes variable valve timing, a first in a mass-produced non-overhead cam engine. The system adjusts both intake and exhaust timing between two settings. The engine produces 403 hp (301 kW) (23 hp more than its sister competitor, the GMC Yukon Denali) and 417 ft·lbf (565 N·m) of torque. A new six-speed 6L80 automatic transmission is used. The new body completes a 0.363 drag coefficient. By 2010, the Cadillac escalades base price had climbed for up to about $62,500 for a RWD model, and about $65,200 for an AWD model. This, compared to a Mercedes GL, which is about $59,500 for the AWD diesel, and $60,500 for the AWD V8. This is about $5000 less than a comparable Escalade. Yet the Escalade has a standard navigation system, and heated/ cooled seats, rearview camera, rear distance sensors, and premium audio, which most GL's come optioned with, making them comparably priced with the same equipment. The Mercedes GL's base price has also risen steadily.
Standard features of the Cadillac Escalade include air conditioning w/tri-zone climate controls, tilt faux wood & real leather-wrapped steering wheel w/radio controls, cruise control, leather upholstery, heated front seats and heated 2nd-row seats, 14-way power front seats, memory system, remote engine start, premium sound system, 6-disc CD changer, rear radio controls, compass, power lift-gate, and outside-temperature indicator. The Platinum adds on a DVD entertainment system, navigation system, heated and cooled cupholders, rearview camera, cooled front seats, upgraded leather upholstery, and power-retractable running boards.
- On the automatic trunk button, the "off" signal was changed from the letter "O" to the word "off."
- Escalade badging on the trunk lid was moved from the left side to the right.
- Seating capacity was increased to 8 passengers
- The gauges were updated
- A newly re-designed remote for keyless entry was introduced to further distinguish it from the Chevrolet Tahoe/GMC Denali siblings.
- Bluetooth hands-free interface was made standard.
- A power tilt steering wheel was made standard.
- The Satellite Navigation System (optional) now added instant traffic updates and re-routing options.
- Side Zone Blind Spot Alert was made standard.
- GM's Magnetic Ride Control (MRC) was made standard on all models.
- General Motors badges were dropped on the doors.
- 2nd row headrests made larger and no longer adjustable.
- GM facelifted the Cadillac Escalade lineup with a new set of headlights.
- Silver Coast Metallic and Sapphire Blue Metallic were added as new color trims, along with a revised grade braking performance.
- A new color, Midnight Plum Metallic, were added. This is the first time that the Escalade will only be available in both standard and ESV brands, as the EXT and Hybrid models were discontinued.
A Hybrid version of the luxury vehicle debuted at the 2008 South Florida International Auto Show in Miami, and went on sale in 2008 as a 2009 model at a starting price of $74,085 for a two-wheel drive model. In August, 20% of Cadillac Escalade sales were hybrids.
The Escalade Hybrid takes 8.2 seconds to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h) . Power is from a 6 liter V8 engine that makes 332 hp (248 kW) at 5100 rpm and 367 lb·ft (498 N·m) at 4100 rpm.
Flex-Fuel versions have also joined the lineup.
Fourth generation (2015–)Edit
|Model year(s)||2015 (on sale April 2014)|
|Assembly||Arlington, Texas, U.S.|
|Body style(s)||4-door SUV|
rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
|Engine(s)||6.2L EcoTec3 V-8 FlexFuel|
|Transmission(s)||6-speed GM 6L80 automatic|
116.0 in (2,946 mm)|
130.0 in (3,302 mm) (ESV)
202.5 in (5,144 mm)|
224.3 in (5,697 mm) (ESV)
|Width||80.5 in (2,045 mm)|
SWB: 74.4 in (1,890 mm)|
ESV:74.0 in (1,880 mm)
GMC Yukon/Yukon XL/GMC Yukon Denali and Yukon Denali XL (2015)
|Designer||Bob Boniface (exterior design director)|
On October 7, 2013, Cadillac unveiled the fourth generation Escalade and Escalade ESV at a star-studded event in New York City, just nearly a month after GM unveiled their next-generation SUVs from Chevrolet and GMC. Cadillac began its campaign to promote the Escalade on August 14, 2013, and started posting teasers online on September 23, 2013, with help from photographer Autumn de Wilde, who helped reveal more images ahead of the unveiling. A YouTube page called "Escalade Reveal" was set up to showcase the videos along with the countdown to unveiling. On November 25, 2013, Cadillac began spreading the word of mouth about the 2015 Escalade by placing a front facsimile cutout of the vehicle on display at Sak's Fifth Avenue's New York City flagship store during its annual Christmas promotional campaign, which shows the SUV being frozen in wraps.
Production on The Escalade began in January 2014 at GM's Arlington, Texas assembly plant and went on sale in April 2014 as a 2015 model (with the MRSP starting at around $71,000 for Full Size, $74,000 for ESV), and available in only three trims: Base, Luxury, and Premium. International sales are scheduled to start in the Summer of 2014. They are assigned to the GMT K2XX platform as K2XL.
Details and featuresEdit
On February 13, 2010, according to a report on Autoblog.com, GM had reissued a redesign on the GM fullsize SUV lineup, including the Escalade, for a 2014 release due to increased SUV sales, and was working on its fullsize SUV replacements, which would see a possible change in the Escalade's SUV platform. But in July 2013, a series of spy shots revealed that GM will keep the Escalade a body-on-frame SUV. However, GM is looking at expanding the Escalade brand to the large CUV segment, which would see a vehicle using the Escalade badge sharing the same platform as the Chevrolet Traverse and GMC Acadia, which is in the planning stages. According to VP Bob Ferguson, Cadillac's first 3-row Escalade CUV could be introduced in 2016. There is also a possibility that GM might export the Escalade to Australia as a Right-hand drive vehicle as part of Cadillac's global expansion, despite GM's decision to shut down its Holden division there in 2017.
For the fourth generation Escalade, the SUVs share the same interior and exterior DNA as the Suburban/Tahoe and Yukon/XL/Denali. The only difference is that the front fascia has been completely redesigned featuring the same Cadillac signature frontal design, while the LED taillamps that are located in the back now extend from the bumper all the way up to the top of the tailgate.
The cargo space was reduced from 109.8 in (2,789 mm) to 94.2 in (2,393 mm) on the standard base and from 137.5 in (3,493 mm) to 120.5 in (3,061 mm) on the ESV in order to allow an additional 1.7 inches of headroom and 45.3 inches of legroom in the front while reducing the third-row legroom space to 24.8 inches from 25.6 inches. GM's 6.2-liter EcoTec3 V8, good for 420 horsepower and 460 pound-feet of torque, mated to a six-speed automatic transmission, is the only engine offered, along with a new coil-over front suspension and five-link rear setup, a wider track, variable-assist electric power steering and Cadillac's Magnetic Ride Control system with Tour and Sport modes. The interior now boast a hand-crafted design that features cut-and-sewn and wrapped materials, with wood trim options chosen for elegance and authenticity. The dashboard was also updated, and the Cadillac CUE system is added as a standard feature, along with an updated security system.
On December 23, 2013, Cadillac unveiled seven color palettes for the exterior trims on the Escalade: Dark Granite Metallic, Radiant Silver Metallic, Black Raven, White Diamond Tricoat, Silver Coast Metallic, Crystal Red Tintcoat and Majestic Plum Metallic, and three colors for the interior: Jet Black with Jet Black Accents, Kona Brown with Jet Black Accents, and Shale with Cocoa Accents.
On August 11, 2014, Cadillac announced that the Escalade lineup will receive a 8-Speed transmission, Surround View camera and 4G LTE connectivity as part of a mid-year refreshening, which also sees the wreaths on the grille disappear from the Escalade as part of Cadillac's plans to update the logo to emphasize the crest on all of its models.
On April 23, 2014, Hennessey Performance Engineering announced that will offer a HPE550 supercharger upgrade to fourth generation Escalade customers, which includes a belt-driven supercharger, air-to-water intercooler, recalibrated engine management software and a three-year/36,000 mile powertrain warranty, a 6psi boost that will increase the 6.2L engine's performance to 557 horsepower and 542 pound-feet of torque, and 20-inch lightweight H10 forged monoblock wheels, to further improve performance. The upgrades, once they are ordered by customers, have a set price of $15,950.
Critical reception Edit
The reviews for the fourth generation Escalade's redesign has been met with positive results from automotive critics. USA Today's James R. Healey and Fred Meier noted that "The once-unthinkable big Cadillac SUV has become indispensable." CNET's Antuan Goodwin notes that "Fans of the Escalade will appreciate the automaker's sticking with the original message and not "ruining" its former flagship, but if you already think the giant luxury SUV is a relic of the past, there's nothing in the 2015 Escalade that will convince you that it's anything but an old dog that's learned a few cool new tricks." Carscoops noted that "It may have impressed us more if a) it had shown the Escalade first instead of last, after the Chevrolet and GMC models or b) if the Chevrolet Tahoe and Suburban and GMC Yukon and Yukon XL simply did not exist…" and added that Cadillac has won their attention with the redesign. Scott Burgess of Motor Trend summed up the redesign in its headline, saying its "It's bigger, it's bolder and it's more beautiful." Bill Visnic of Edmunds concluded in his review that "With subtle, new sheet metal refreshingly free of styling gimmicks, Cadillac's looking to the 2015 Escalade's all-new and upgraded interior to help it retain its role as the benchmark of bling SUVs." The vehicle received a positive review by Autoblog contributor Michael Hartley, who took a road trip with a standard 4WD full size trim from Los Angeles to Monterey, California. Although Hartley was skeptical at first, he came away impressed: "A 600-mile trip in the Escalade left me convinced that it has the features, build quality and driving dynamics to strike new fear in the segment."
For 2015, Cadillac is rumored to add a twin-turbo V6 package offering, like CTS and XTS (V-sport), the Escalade may receive the same offering, but will keep the V8 engine as an option, unlike the Lincoln Motor Company new 2015 Navigator. GM recently hired Infiniti's Johan de Nysschen to serve as Cadillac president and help revitalize the brand. June (2014) shipments showed Cadillac down a few percent for the year, however the Escalade was among the biggest winners with a 74-percent sales jump, and was one of Cadillac's best sellers the following July.
On August 20, 2014, Automotive News and Autoblog began reporting that Cadillac dealers have been waiting three times longer than usual - a month or more - from the time an Escalade leaves the assembly line to when it gets delivered, saying they don't always know where their vehicles are in transit, or when they are set to arrive, upsetting customers who have put down deposits, leading to Cadillac dealerships to reportedly stop taking pre-orders. Even customers who placed orders as far as February 2014 are still waiting for the vehicles according to the dealerships' owners. Cadillac blames the delays on two weeks of "dwell time," citing "a lengthy quality-assurance process on some interior parts" that caused the lag, as well as additional issues with figuring out which vehicles should be delivered first. Despite the setback, Cadillac does plan to correct the issues with adding more employees and speed up production at the Arlington plant.
On May 20, 2014, GM announced that it was recalling 1,402 2015 Escalades and Escalade ESVs due to "an insufficiently heated plastic weld that attaches the (front) passenger side air bag to the instrument panel assembly could result in a partial deployment of the air bag in the event of a crash." GM also placed a temporary halt on further sales and informed owners not to let passengers to sit in the front passenger side seats until they are replaced.
The Escalade EXT sport utility truck (released alongside its twin, the Chevrolet Avalanche) was introduced in 2002 from the Cadillac division of General Motors. It features a "Convert-a-Cab" composite pickup bed that can be expanded into the truck's cab through a bottom-hinged door. Like the Avalanche, the EXT has four full-size doors and seating for five. The EXT was only offered with the 6.0 L V8 High Output engine. High-intensity discharge headlights were offered for 2003. The Escalade EXT also appears in the movie, The Matrix Reloaded along with the CTS in product placement ads. All Escalade EXTs are built in Mexico.
The Escalade EXT (based on the Cadillac Escalade) was created as a direct competitor to the failed Lincoln Blackwood, a pickup truck based on the Ford F-150. It had competed with the Lincoln Mark LT (now discontinued in the United States and Canada), another F-150-based pickup truck that made its debut in 2007. It now competes with the Ford F-150 Platinum, which is still known as the Lincoln Mark LT in Mexico.
In 2005, Cadillac released its first version of the Platinum Escalade. It was only available in the ESV model. It had such features as heated and ventilated Seats (front and back), heated and ventilated cup holders, special 20" wheels, special leathers and interior design, extra labeling and HID headlamps.
In 2008, Cadillac offered the Platinum Edition on its redesigned Escalade and Escalade ESV models. It includes such features as a unique front fascia and grill, heated and cooled cup holders, limited edition 22" wheels, additional chrome pieces and accents, 2 additional dvd monitors- located in the headrests of each front seat, special hand stitched leathers, real aluminum interior accents, Advanced Magnetic Ride Control system, genuine olive ash and burled walnut wood interior trim, and the world's first production LED headlamps.
In 2009, Cadillac released a Hybrid Platinum Escalade.
On February 13, 2010, according to a report on Autoblog.com, GM has reissued a redesign on the GM fullsize SUV lineup, including the Escalade, for a 2013 release due to increased SUV sales.
|Calendar Year||Escalade||EXT||ESV||Total U.S. sales|
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- ↑ "From Velocity Journal (Escalade)". Velocityjournal.com. Retrieved on 2010-10-03.
- ↑ "from Velocity Journal (Escalade ESV)". Velocityjournal.com. Retrieved on 2010-10-03.
- ↑ Maynard, Micheline (2009-01-13). "York Times". Wheels.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved on 2010-10-03.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 "Группа компаний Автотор :: Автомобили GM". Avtotor.ru. Retrieved on 2010-10-03.
- ↑ http://web.archive.org/web/20120306204712/http://www.avtotor.ru/upload/pictures/gm2009.jpg
- ↑ "GM to drop corporate logo from vehicles – Detroit News". The Detroit News. Retrieved on September 30, 2010.[dead link]
- ↑ Cadillac Escalade/Escalade ESV - 2014 from GM Media (Released May 2013)
- ↑ The 2009 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid
- ↑ "What Next?", Autoweek 63(22): 8. October 28, 2013.
- ↑ Next-gen Cadillac Escalade debuting October 7 in NYC from Autoblog (August 14, 2013)
- ↑ "GM revealing 2015 Cadillac Escalade in New York City, partners with Autumn de Wilde" from MLive (September 23, 2013)
- ↑ "Wordless Wednesday: Sak's Fifth Avenue Freezes The 2015 Cadillac Escalade" from GM Authority (December 18, 2013)
- ↑ "2015 Cadillac Escalade on sale in April priced at $71,695" from Autoblog (January 23, 2014)
- ↑ "2015 Cadillac Escalade configurator lets you bling it your way" from Autoblog (March 21, 2014)
- ↑ "Cadillac Unveils 2015 Escalade In UAE" from GM Authority (November 25, 2013)
- ↑ Vijayenthiran, Viknesh (2010-02-15). "GM Working On Next-Gen Cadillac Escalade, Other Full-Size SUVs". MotorAuthority. Retrieved on 2010-10-03.
- ↑ "2015 Cadillac Escalade Spy Photos: The star of music videos for years to come" from Car & Driver (July 23, 2014)
- ↑ Cadillac weighs large crossover under Escalade badge from Automotive News (October 7, 2013)
- ↑ "Cadillac Should Exploit Escalade Name:Exec" from Autoguide (January 27, 2014)
- ↑ "Cadillac could 'flourish' in Australia, says marketing chief" from Autoblog (March 13, 2014)
- ↑ "2015 Cadillac Escalade is exactly what you expect (w/video)" from Autoblog (October 7, 2013)
- ↑ These Are The Seven Exterior And Three Interior Colors of The 2015 Cadillac Escalade from GM Authority (December 23, 2013)
- ↑ "2015 Cadillac Escalade gets 8-speed auto, range-topping Platinum Collection trim" from Autoblog (August 11, 2014)
- ↑ "Hennessy wastes no time in supercharging the 2015 Cadillac Escalade" from Autoblog (April 23, 2014)
- ↑ 2015 Cadillac Escalade reaches higher from USA Today (October 7, 2013)
- ↑ 2015 Cadillac Escalade learns new tech tricks, keeps old-school feel from CNET (October 7, 2013)
- ↑ "2015 Cadillac Escalade Revealed in All its Big and Brawny Glory (Photos & Videos)" from Carscoops (October 7, 2013)
- ↑ First Look: 2015 Cadillac Escalade from Motor Trend (October 7, 2013)
- ↑ "Cadillac Reveals Next Generation of Bling With 2015 Escalade" from Edmunds (October 7, 2013)
- ↑ "2015 Cadillac Escalade" from Autoblog (August 29, 2014)
- ↑ "Cadillac dealers frustrated over Escalade production snarls" from Autoblog (August 20, 2014)
- ↑ "GM issues four new recalls, 2.4 million cars affected" from Autoblog (May 20, 2014)
- ↑ Vijayenthiran, Viknesh (2010-02-15). "GM Working On Next-Gen Cadillac Escalade, Other Full-Size SUVs". MotorAuthority. Retrieved on 2010-10-03.
- ↑ "Report: GM green lights Lambda-based Cadillac". Leftlanenews.com (2010-08-11). Retrieved on 2010-10-03.
- ↑ "mediaOnline". Media.gm.com (2000-01-05). Retrieved on 2009-07-19.
- ↑ "mediaOnline". Media.gm.com (2002-01-03). Retrieved on 2009-07-19.
- ↑ "GM Media Online". Media.gm.com (2004-01-05). Retrieved on 2009-09-17.
- ↑ "GM Reports December 2005 and Year Results". Theautochannel.com (2006-01-05). Retrieved on 2009-06-01.
- ↑ "GM Media Online". Media.gm.com (2007-01-03). Retrieved on 2009-06-01.
- ↑ "GM Media Online". Media.gm.com (2009-01-05). Retrieved on 2009-06-01.
- ↑ http://media.gm.com/content/Pages/news/us/en/2010/Jan/0105_Dec_Sales/_jcr_content/iconrow/textfile/file.res/Deliveries%20December%2009.xls
- ↑ http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/general-motors-2010-calendar-year-sales-up-21-percent-december-sales-increase-16-percent---best-month-of-2010-112868149.html
- ↑ "Sales: December 2011 - General Motors - Cheers & Gears: Forums". Cheersandgears.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-06.
- ↑ "GM's U.S. Sales up 5 percent in December". Media.gm.com (2013-01-03). Retrieved on 2013-01-03.
- ↑ http://media.gm.com/dld/content/dam/Media/gmcom/investor/2014/jan/Deliveries-December-2013.pdf
- Cadillac Escalade website
- Cadillac Escalade ESV website
- Cadillac Escalade EXT website
- Official UK website
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