|Founder(s)||Franz Josef Popp|
|Key people||Norbert Reithofer (CEO), Joachim Milberg Chairman of the supervisory board)|
|Products||Automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles|
|Revenue (turnover)||€60.48 billion (2010)|
|Operating income||€5.094 billion (2010)|
|Profit||€3.218 billion (2010)|
|Total assets||€108.87 billion (end 2010)|
|Total equity||€23.10 billion (end 2010)|
|Employees||95,450 (end 2010)|
Rolls-Royce Motor Cars|
(BMW), (literally English: Bavarian Motor Works) is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It also owns and produces the Mini brand, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW produces motorcycles under BMW Motorrad and Husqvarna brands. BMW is known for its performance and luxury vehicles, and is a global leader in premium car sales.
- Main article: History of BMW
BMW entered existence as a business entity following a restructuring of the Rapp Motorenwerke aircraft engine manufacturing firm in 1917. After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to motorcycle production in 1923 once the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted, followed by automobiles in 1928–29.
The circular blue and white BMW logo or roundel is portrayed by BMW as the movement of an aircraft propeller, to signify the white blades cutting through the blue sky — an interpretation that BMW adopted for convenience in 1929, twelve years after the roundel was created. The emblem evolved from the circular Rapp Motorenwerke company logo, from which the BMW company grew, combined with the blue and white colors of the flag of Bavaria, reversed to produce the BMW roundel. However, the origin of the logo being based on the movement of a propeller is in dispute, according to an article posted in 2010 by the New York Times, quoting "At the BMW Museum in Munich, Anne Schmidt-Possiwal, explained that the blue-and-white company logo did not represent a spinning propeller, but was meant to show the colors of the Free State of Bavaria." [unreliable source?]
BMW's first significant aircraft engine was the BMW IIIa inline-six liquid-cooled engine of 1918, much preferred for its high-altitude performance. With German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe. Among its successful World War II engine designs were the BMW 132 and BMW 801 air-cooled radial engines, and the pioneering BMW 003 axial-flow turbojet, which powered the tiny, 1944-1945-era jet-powered "emergency fighter", the Heinkel He 162 Spatz. The BMW 003 jet engine was tested in the A-1b version of the world's first jet fighter, the Messerschmitt Me 262, but BMW engines failed on takeoff, a major setback for the jet fighter program until successful testing with Junkers engines.
By the year 1959, the automotive division of BMW was in financial difficulties and a shareholders meeting was held to decide whether to go into liquidation or find a way of carrying on. It was decided to carry on and to try to cash in on the current economy car boom enjoyed so successfully by some of Germany's ex-aircraft manufacturers such as Messerschmitt and Heinkel. The rights to manufacture the Italian Iso Isetta were bought; the tiny cars themselves were to be powered by a modified form of BMW's own motorcycle engine. This was moderately successful and helped the company get back on its feet. The controlling majority shareholder of the BMW Aktiengesellschaft since 1959 is the Quandt family, which owns about 46% of the stock. The rest is in public float.
BMW acquired the Hans Glas company based in Dingolfing, Germany, in 1966. It was reputed that the acquisition was mainly to gain access to Glas' development of the timing belt with an overhead camshaft in automotive applications. Glas vehicles were briefly badged as BMW until the company was fully absorbed.
In 1992, BMW acquired a large stake in California based industrial design studio DesignworksUSA, which they fully acquired in 1995. In 1994, BMW bought the British Rover Group (which at the time consisted of the Rover, Land Rover and MG brands as well as the rights to defunct brands including Austin and Morris), and owned it for six years. By 2000, Rover was making huge losses and BMW decided to sell the combine. The MG and Rover brands were sold to the Phoenix Consortium to form MG Rover, while Land Rover was taken over by Ford. BMW, meanwhile, retained the rights to build the new Mini, which was launched in 2001.
Chief designer Chris Bangle announced his departure from BMW in February 2009, after serving on the design team for nearly seventeen years. He was replaced by Adrian van Hooydonk, Bangle's former right hand man. Bangle was known for his radical designs such as the 2002 7-Series and the 2002 Z4. In July 2007, the production rights for Husqvarna Motorcycles was purchased by BMW for a reported 93 million euros. BMW Motorrad plans to continue operating Husqvarna Motorcycles as a separate enterprise. All development, sales and production activities, as well as the current workforce, have remained in place at its present location at Varese.
- Strategic investors: 46.7%
- Institutional investors:
- North America: 15.8%
- United Kingdom and Ireland: 11.8%
- Other Europe: 5.7%
- Germany: 4.8%
- Rest of the world: 2.5%
- Other investors: 12.7%
In 2006, the BMW group (including Mini and Rolls-Royce) produced 1,366,838 four-wheeled vehicles, which were manufactured in five countries. In 2010, it manufactured 1,481,253 four-wheeled vehicles and 112,271 motorcycles (under both the BMW and Husqvarna brands).
The BMW X3 (E83) was made by Magna Steyr, a subsidiary of Magna of Canada, in Graz, Austria under license from BMW until 2010. Over 45.973 were produced in 2009. Starting October 2010 the new BMW X3 (F25) is produced in BMW's plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina, U.S.A. From September 2010, the plant is producing MINI Countryman.
It is reported that about 56 per cent BMW brand vehicles produced are powered by petrol engines and the remaining 44 per cent are powered by diesel engines. Of those petrol vehicles, about 27 per cent are four cylinder models and about nine per cent are eight-cylinder models.
Production by country
|Mexico||BMW||1,500||100,000||BMW X3, X5, 3, 5, 7-series|
|Russia||BMW||1,500||2,000||BMW X5, X6, 5-series|
|United Kingdom||Mini||187,454||235,019||All Minis|
|USA||BMW||105,172||170,741||BMW X5, X6|
|South Africa||BMW||54,782||47,980||BMW 3-Series|
Vehicles sold in all markets according to BMW's annual reports.
BMW began building motorcycle engines and then motorcycles after World War I. Its motorcycle brand is now known as BMW Motorrad. Their first successful motorcycle, after the failed Helios and Flink, was the "R32" in 1923. This had a "boxer" twin engine, in which a cylinder projects into the air-flow from each side of the machine. Apart from their single cylinder models (basically to the same pattern), all their motorcycles used this distinctive layout until the early 1980s. Many BMWs are still produced in this layout, which is designated the R Series.During the Second World War, BMW produced the BMW R75 motorcycle with a sidecar attached. Featuring a unique design copied from the Zündapp KS750, its sidecar wheel was also motor-driven. Combined with a lockable differential, this made the vehicle very capable off-road, an equivalent in many ways to the Jeep.
In 1982, came the K Series, shaft drive but water-cooled and with either three or four cylinders mounted in a straight line from front to back. Shortly after, BMW also started making the chain-driven F and G series with single and parallel twin Rotax engines.
In the early 1990s, BMW updated the airhead Boxer engine which became known as the oilhead. In 2002, the oilhead engine had two spark plugs per cylinder. In 2004 it added a built-in balance shaft, an increased capacity to 1,170 cc and enhanced performance to 100 hp (75 kW) for the R1200GS, compared to 85 hp (63 kW) of the previous R1150GS. More powerful variants of the oilhead engines are available in the R1100S and R1200S, producing 98 hp (73 kW) and 122 hp (91 kW), respectively.
In 2004, BMW introduced the new K1200S Sports Bike which marked a departure for BMW. It features an engine producing 167 hp (125 kW), derived from the company's work with the Williams F1 team, and is lighter than previous K models. Innovations include electronically adjustable front and rear suspension, and a Hossack-type front fork that BMW calls Duolever.
BMW introduced anti-lock brakes on production motorcycles starting in the late 1980s. The generation of anti-lock brakes available on the 2006 and later BMW motorcycles pave the way for the introduction of electronic stability control, or anti-skid technology later in the 2007 model year.
BMW has been an innovator in motorcycle suspension design, taking up telescopic front suspension long before most other manufacturers. Then they switched to an Earles fork, front suspension by swinging fork (1955 to 1969). Most modern BMWs are truly rear swingarm, single sided at the back (compare with the regular swinging fork usually, and wrongly, called swinging arm). Some BMWs started using yet another trademark front suspension design, the Telelever, in the early 1990s. Like the Earles fork, the Telelever significantly reduces dive under braking.
In July 2007, the Italian-made Husqvarna Motorcycles was purchased by BMW for a reported €93 million. BMW Motorrad plans to continue operating Husqvarna Motorcycles as a separate enterprise. All development, sales and production activities, as well as the current workforce, have remained in place at its present location at Varese. Husqvarna manufactures motocross, enduro and supermoto motorcycles.
- Main article: List of BMW vehicles
- Main article: BMW New Class
The New Class (German: Neue Klasse) was a line of compact sedans and coupes starting with the 1962 1500 and continuing through the last 2002s in 1977. Powered by BMW's celebrated four-cylinder M10 engine, the New Class models featured a fully independent suspension, MacPherson struts in front, and front disc brakes. Initially a family of four-door sedans and two-door coupes, the New Class line was broadened to two-door sports sedans with the addition of the 02 Series 1600 and 2002 in 1966.
Sharing little in common with the rest of the line beyond power train, the sporty siblings caught auto enthusiasts' attention and established BMW as an international brand. Precursors to the famed BMW 3 Series, the two-doors' success cemented the firm's future as an upper tier performance car maker. New Class four-doors with numbers ending in "0" were replaced by the larger BMW 5 Series in 1972. The upscale 2000C and 2000CS coupes were replaced by the six-cylinder BMW E9, introduced in 1969 with the 2800CS. The 1600 two-door was discontinued in 1975, the 2002 replaced by the 320i in 1975.
The 1 Series, launched in 2004, is BMW's smallest car, and is available in coupe/convertible (E82/E88) and hatchback (E81/E87) forms. The 3 Series, a compact executive car manufactured since model year 1975, is currently in its fifth generation (E90); models include the sport sedan (E90), station wagon (E91), coupe (E92), and convertible (E93). The 5 Series is a mid-size executive car, available in sedan (E60) and station wagon (E61) forms. The 5 Series Gran Turismo (F07), beginning in 2010, will create a segment between station wagons and crossover SUV.
BMW's full-size flagship executive sedan is the 7 Series. Typically, BMW introduces many of their innovations first in the 7 Series, such as the somewhat controversial iDrive system. The 7 Series Hydrogen, featuring one of the world's first hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines, is fueled by liquid hydrogen and emits only clean water vapor. The latest generation (F01) debuted in 2009. Based on the 5 Series' platform, the 6 Series is BMW's grand touring luxury sport coupe/convertible (E63/E64). A 2-seater roadster and coupe which succeeded the Z3, the Z4 (E85) has been sold since 2002.
The X3 (E83), BMW's first crossover SUV (called SAV or "Sports Activity Vehicle" by BMW) debuted in 2003 and is based on the E46/16 3 Series platform. Marketed in Europe as an off-roader, it benefits from BMW's xDrive all-wheel drive system. The all-wheel drive X5 (E70) is a mid-size luxury SUV (SAV) sold by BMW since 2000. A 4-seat crossover SUV released by BMW in December 2007, the X6 is marketed as a "Sports Activity Coupe" (SAC) by BMW. The upcoming X1 extends the BMW Sports Activity Series model lineup.
- 1 Series (E81) (2004–present) Hatchback, coupe and convertible
- 3 Series (E90) (2005–present) Sedan, coupe, convertible and wagon
- 5 Series (F10) (2010–present) Sedan and Wagon
- 5 Series Gran Turismo (2009–present) Progressive Activity Sedan
- 6 Series (E63) (2003–present) Coupe and convertible
- 7 Series (F01) (2008–present) Sedan
- X1 (2009–present) Compact Crossover SUV/Sports Activity Vehicle (SAV)
- X3 (F25) (2010–present) Compact Crossover SUV/Sports Activity Vehicle (SAV)
- X5 (E70) (2006–present) Compact Crossover SUV/Sports Activity Vehicle (SAV)
- X6 (2008–present) Sports Activity Coupe
- Z4 (E89) (2009–present) Sports Roadster
BMW M modelsEdit
- Main article: BMW M
Based on the 3 Series, the M3 defined an entirely new market for BMW: a race-ready production vehicle. Since its debut, the M3 is heralded in enthusiast circles, in large part due to its unique geometry and award winning engines. The newest V8-powered platform became available the Autumn of 2007 in Europe, and second quarter of 2008 for the U.S. in coupe (E92), and later the cabriolet (E93), and sedan (E90) variants. Based on the 5 Series, the M5 is the M division's V10-powered version of the E60 5 Series. The M6 is the M division's version of the 6 Series, and shares its drivetrain with the M5. The Z4 M, or M Coupe/M Roadster, is the M division's version of the Z4. The X5M is the M division's version of the X5, and the X6M is the M division's version of the X6. Both the X5M and X6M share the same V8 twin scroll twin turbo.
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- Main article: BMW in motorsport
BMW has been engaged in motorsport activities since the dawn of the first BMW motorcycle.
- Formula BMW – A Junior racing Formula category.
- Kumho BMW Championship – A BMW-exclusive championship run in the United Kingdom.
- Isle of Man TT – in 1939 BMW became the first foreign manufacturer to win the Isle of Man TT race with Georg Meier
- Dakar Rally – BMW motorcycles have won the Dakar rally six times. In 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1999, and 2000.
- Superbike World Championship – BMW returned to premier road racing in 2009 with their all new superbike, the BMW S1000RR.
- Main article: BMW in Formula One
BMW has a history of success in Formula One. BMW powered cars have won 20 races. In 2006 BMW took over the Sauber team and became Formula One constructors. In 2007 and 2008 the team enjoyed some success. The most recent win is a lone constructor team's victory by BMW Sauber F1 Team, on 8 June 2008, at the Canadian Grand Prix with Robert Kubica driving. Achievements include:
- Driver championship: 1 (1983)
- Constructor championship: 0 (Runner-up 2002, 2003, 2007)
- Grand Prix wins: 20
- Podium finishes: 76
- Pole positions: 33
- Fastest laps: 33
BMW was an engine supplier to Williams, Benetton, Brabham, and Arrows. Notable drivers who have started their Formula One careers with BMW include Jenson Button, Juan Pablo Montoya, Robert Kubica and Sebastian Vettel.
In July 2009, BMW announced that it would withdraw from Formula One at the end of the 2009 season. The team was sold back to the previous owner, Peter Sauber, who still at the beginning of the 2010 season has yet to drop the BMW part of the name of the team.
- Le Mans 24 Hours – BMW won Le Mans in 1999 with the BMW V12 LMR designed by Williams Grand Prix Engineering. Also the Kokusai Kaihatsu Racing team won the 1995 edition with a BMW-engined McLaren F1 GTR race car.
- Nürburgring – BMW won the 24 Hours Nürburgring 18 times and the 1000km Nürburgring twice (1976 and 1981).
- 24 Hours of Daytona – BMW won 2 times (1976, 2011)
- Spa 24 Hours – BMW won 21 times
- McLaren F1 GTR – Successful mid-1990s GT racing car with a BMW designed engine. It won the BPR Global GT Series in 1995 and 1996 and the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1995.
BMW has a long and successful history in touring car racing.
- European Touring Car Championship (ETCC) – Since 1968, BMW won 24 drivers' championships along with several manufacturers' and teams' titles.
- World Touring Car Championship (WTCC) – BMW won four drivers' championship (1987, 2005, 2006 and 2007) and three manufacturers' titles (2005–2007).
- DTM (Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft) – the following won the DTM drivers' championship driving BMWs:
- 1989: Roberto Ravaglia, BMW M3
- 1987: Eric van der Poele, BMW M3
- The DRM (Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft) was won by Harald Ertl in a BMW 320i Turbo in 1978
- British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) – BMW won the drivers' championship in 1988, 1991, 1992 and 1993 and manufacturers' championship in 1991 and 1993.
- SCCA Pro Racing World Challenge Touring Car Series(WC) – BMW won the manufacturer's championship in 2001 and Bill Auberlen, driving a Turner Motorsport BMW 325i, won the 2003 and 2004 Driver's Championships.
- Japanese Touring Car Championship (JTCC) – BMW (Schnitzer) flew from Europe to Japan to compete in the JTCC and won the championship in 1995.
- Mille Miglia – BMW won Mille Miglia in 1940 in with a 328 Touring Coupé. Previously in 1938 the 328 sport car also obtained a class victory.
BMW announced on October 15, 2010 that it will return to touring car racing during the 2012 season. Dr. Klaus Draeger, who is in charge of the return to DTM racing (Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters), commented that “The return of BMW to the DTM is a fundamental part of the restructuring of our motorsport activities. With its increased commitment to production car racing, BMW is returning to its roots. The race track is the perfect place to demonstrate the impressive sporting characteristics of our vehicles against our core competitors in a high-powered environment. The DTM is the ideal stage on which to do this.”
- RAC Rally – The 328 sport car won this event in 1939.
- Paris Dakar Rally – BMW motorcycles have won this event 6 times.
- Tour de Corse – The BMW M3 - E30 won this event in 1987
Sport sponsorship beyond motor sportEdit
BMW does more than just motor sport sponsorship. It sponsors international polo matches played at Shongweni in Durban and Illovo in Johannesburg, South Africa. BMW and the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) made six year sponsorship deal official in July 2010. Those at BMW and the USOC officials see nothing contradictory about a German company sponsoring Olympians in the USA in this global economy.
The company is a charter member of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Environmental Achievement Track, which recognises companies for their environmental stewardship and performance. It is also a member of the South Carolina Environmental Excellence Program and is on the Dow Jones Sustainability Group Index, which rates environmentally friendly companies. BMW has taken measures to reduce the impact the company has on the environment. It is trying to design less-polluting cars by making existing models more efficient, as well as developing environmentally friendly fuels for future vehicles. Possibilities include: electric power, hybrid power (combustion, engines and electric motors) hydrogen engines.
BMW offers 49 models with EU5/6 emissions norm and nearly 20 models with CO2 output less than 140 g/km, which puts it on the lowest tax group and therefore could provide the future owner with eco-bonus offered from some European countries.
However, there have been some criticisms directed at BMW, and in particular, accusations of greenwash in reference to their BMW Hydrogen 7. Some critics claim that the emissions produced during hydrogen fuel production outweigh the reduction of tailpipe emissions, and that the Hydrogen 7 is a distraction from more immediate, practical solutions for car pollution.
BMW has created a range of high-end bicycles sold online and through dealerships. They range from the Kid's Bike to the EUR 4,499 Enduro Bike. In the United States, only the Cruise Bike and Kid's Bike models are sold.
BMW vehicles follow a certain nomenclature; usually a 3 digit number is followed by 1 or 2 letters. The first number represents the series number. The next two numbers traditionally represent the engine displacement in cubic centimeters divided by 100. However, more recent cars use those two numbers as a performance index, as e.g. the 116i, 118i and 120i (all 2,0L gas-powered), just like the 325d and 330d (both 3,0L diesel) share the same motor block while adjusting engine power through setup and turbocharging. A similar nomenclature is used by BMW Motorrad for their motorcycles.
The system of letters can be used in combination, and is as follows:
- A = automatic transmission
- C = coupé, last used on the BMW E46 and the BMW E63 (dropped after 2005 model year)
- c = cabriolet
- d = diesel†
- e = eta (efficient economy, from the Greek letter 'η')
- g = compressed natural gas/CNG
- h = hydrogen
- i = fuel-injected
- L = long wheelbase
- s = sport, also means "2 dr" on E36 model††
- sDrive = rear wheel drive
- T = touring (wagon/estate)
- Ti = hatchback for the BMW 3 Series hatchback
- x / xDrive = BMW xDrive all wheel drive
† historic nomenclature indicating "td" refers to "Turbo Diesel", not a diesel hatchback or touring model (524td, 525td)
†† typically includes sport seats, spoiler, aerodynamic body kit, upgraded wheels, etc.
For example, the BMW 760iL is a fuel-injected 7 Series with a long wheelbase and 6.0 liters of displacement. This badge was used for successive generations, E65 and F01.
When 'L' supersedes the series number (e.g. L6, L7, etc.) it identifies the vehicle as a special luxury variant, featuring extended leather and special interior appointments. The L7 is based on the E23 and E38, and the L6 is based on the E24.
When 'X' is capitalised and supersedes the series number (e.g. X3, X5, etc.) it identifies the vehicle as one of BMW's Sports Activity Vehicles (SAV), their brand of crossovers, featuring BMW's xDrive. The second number in the 'X' series denotes the platform that it is based upon, for instance the X5 is derived from the 5 Series. Unlike BMW cars, the SAV's main badge does not denote engine size, the engine is instead indicated on side badges.
The 'Z' identifies the vehicle as a two seat roadster (e.g. Z1, Z3, Z4, etc.). 'M' variants of 'Z' models have the 'M' as a suffix or prefix, depending on country of sale (e.g. 'Z4 M' is 'M Roadster' in Canada).
Previous X & Z vehicles had 'i' or 'si' following the engine displacement number (denoted in liters). BMW is now globally standardising this nomenclature on X & Z vehicles by using 'sDrive' or 'xDrive' (simply meaning rear or all wheel drive, respectively) followed by two numbers which vaguely represent the vehicle's engine (e.g. Z4 sDrive35i is a rear wheel drive Z4 roadster with a 3.0 L twin-turbo fuel-injected engine).
BMW last used the 's' for the E36 328is, which ceased production in 1999. However, the 's' nomenclature was brought back on the 2011 model year BMW 335is and BMW Z4 sDrive35is. The 335is is a sport-tuned trim with more performance and an optional dual clutch transmission that slots between the regular 335i and top-of-the-line M3.
The 'M' – for Motorsport – identifies the vehicle as a high-performance model of a particular series (e.g. M3, M5, M6, etc.). For example, the M6 is the highest performing vehicle in the 6 Series lineup. Although 'M' cars should be separated into their respective series platforms, it is very common to see 'M' cars grouped together as its own lineup on the official BMW website.
There are exceptions to the numbering nomenclature.
For instance in the 2008 model year, the BMW 125i/128i, 328i, and 528i all had 3.0 naturally aspirated engines (N52), not a 2,500 cc or 2,800 cc engine as the series designation number would lead one to believe. The '28' is to denote a detuned engine in the 2008 cars, compared to the 2006 model year '30' vehicles (330i and 530i) whose 3.0 naturally aspirated engines are from the same N52 family but had more output.
The 2008 BMW 335i and 535i also have 3.0-liter engine; however the engines are twin-turbocharged (N54) which is not identified by the nomenclature. Nonetheless the '35' indicates a more powerful engine than previous '30' models that have the naturally aspirated N52 engine. The 2011 BMW 740i and 335is shares the same twin-turbo 3.0 engine from the N54 family but tuned to higher outputs, although the badging is not consistent ('40' and 's').
The badging for recent V8 engines (N62 and N63) also does not indicate displacement, as the 2006 750i and 2009 750i have 4800 cc (naturally aspirated) and 4400 cc (twin-turbocharged) engines, respectively.
From the summer of 2001 until October 2005, BMW hosted the "BMW Films". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. website, showcasing sporty models being driven to extremes. These videos are still popular within the enthusiast community and proved to be a ground-breaking online advertising campaign.
Annually since 1999, BMW enthusiasts have met in Santa Barbara, CA to attend Bimmerfest. One of the largest brand-specific gatherings in the U.S., over 3,000 people attended in 2006, and over 1,000 BMW cars were present. In 2007, the event was held on May 5.
The initials BMW are pronounced [ˈbeː ˈɛm ˈveː] in German. The model series are referred to as "Einser" ("One-er" for 1 series), "Dreier" ("Three-er" for 3 series), "Fünfer" ("Five-er" for the 5 series), "Sechser" ("Six-er" for the 6 series), "Siebener" ("Seven-er" for the 7 series). These are not actually slang, but are the normal way that such letters and numbers are pronounced in German.
In the US, specialists have been at pains to prescribe that a distinction must be made between using Beemer exclusively to describe BMW motorcycles, and using Bimmer only to refer to BMW cars, in the manner of a "true aficionado" and avoid appearing to be "uninitiated." The Canadian Globe and Mail prefers Bimmer and calls Beemer a "yuppie abomination," while the Tacoma News Tribune says it is a distinction made by "auto snobs." Using the wrong slang risks offending BMW enthusiasts. An editor of Business Week was satisfied in 2003 that the question was resolved in favor of Bimmer by noting that a Google search yielded 10 times as many hits compared to Beemer.
Manufacturers employ designers for their cars, but BMW has made efforts to gain recognition for exceptional contributions to and support of the arts, including art beyond motor vehicle design. These efforts typically overlap or complement BMW's marketing and branding campaigns. The headquarters building, designed in 1972 by Karl Schwanzer has become a European icon, and artist Gerhard Richter created his Red, Yellow, Blue series of paintings for the building's lobby. In 1975, Alexander Calder was commissioned to paint the 3.0CSL driven by Hervé Poulain at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. This led to more BMW Art Cars, painted by artists including David Hockney, Jenny Holzer, Roy Lichtenstein, and others. The cars, currently numbering 16, have been shown at the Louvre, Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, and, in 2009, at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and New York's Grand Central Terminal. BMW was the principal sponsor of the 1998 The Art of the Motorcycle exhibition at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and other Guggenheim museums, though the financial relationship between BMW and the Guggenheim was criticised in many quarters.
BMW has garnered a reputation over the years for its April Fools pranks, which are printed in the British press every year. In 2010, they ran an advert announcing that customers would be able to order BMWs with different coloured badges to show their affiliation with the political party they supported.
BMWs have been assembled in South Africa since 1968, when Praetor Monteerders' plant was opened in Rosslyn, near Pretoria. BMW initially bought shares in the company, before fully acquiring it in 1975; in so doing, the company became BMW South Africa, the first wholly owned subsidiary of BMW to be established outside Germany. Three unique models that BMW Motorsport created for the South African market were the E23 M745i (1983), which used the M88 engine from the BMW M1, the BMW 333i (1986), which added a 6-cylinder 3.2 litre M30 engine to the E30, and the E30 BMW 325is (1989) which was powered by an Alpina-derived 2.7 litre engine.
Following the end of apartheid in 1994, and the lowering of import tariffs, BMW South Africa ended local production of the 5-Series and 7-Series, in order to concentrate on production of the 3-Series for the export market. South African–built BMWs are now exported to right hand drive markets including Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong, as well as Sub-Saharan Africa. Since 1997, BMW South Africa has produced vehicles in left hand drive for export to Taiwan, the United States and Iran, as well as South America.
BMW's with a VIN number starting with "NC0" are manufactured in South Africa.
BMW Manufacturing Co has been manufacturing the X5 and, more recently, the X6 in Greer near Spartanburg, South Carolina, USA. The smaller X3 has began production in Spartanburg. BMW's with a VIN number starting with "4US and 5US" are manufactured in Spartanburg.
In 2010 BMW announced that it would spend $750 million to expand operations at the Spartanburg plant. This expansion will allow production of 240,000 vehicles a year and will make the plant the largest car factory in the United States by number of employees.
BMW India was established in 2006 as a sales subsidiary in Gurgaon (National Capital Region). A state-of-the-art assembly plant for BMW 3 and 5 Series started operation in early 2007 in Chennai. Construction of the plant started in January 2006 with an initial investment of more than one billion Indian Rupees. The plant started operation in the first quarter of 2007 and produces the different variants of BMW 3 Series and BMW 5 Series.
- Main article: Brilliance Automotive
Signing a deal in 2003 for the production of sedans in China, May 2004 saw the opening of a factory in the North-eastern city of Shenyang where Brilliance Automotive produces BMW-branded automobiles in a joint venture with the German company.
In October 2008, BMW Group Canada was named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers by Mediacorp Canada Inc., which was announced by the Toronto Star newspaper.
Bavarian Auto Group is a multinational group of companies established in March 2003 when it was appointed as the sole importer of BMW and Mini in Egypt, with exclusive rights for import, assembly, distribution, sales and after-sales support of BMW products in Egypt.
Since that date, BAG invested a total amount of 100 Million US Dollars distributed on 7 companies and 11 premises in addition to 3 stores.
Currently, the facility enables Bavarian Auto the opportunity to offer a full range of locally assembled models; including the BMW 3 Series, 5 Series, 7 Series and X3 which. In combination with a new range of imported models; including the BMW 1 Series, 6 Series, X5, X6 and various Mini models.
- AC Schnitzer: A tuning company specialising in BMW vehicles.
- Alpina: A Motor Manufacturer in its own right, who creates vehicles based on BMW cars.
- Automobilwerk Eisenach
- Breyton: A tuning manufacturer specialising in BMW cars.
- Dinan Cars: A tuning company specialising in BMW and Mini cars
- G-Power: A tuning company specialising in BMW vehicles.
- Hamann Motorsport: A Motor Styling and Tuning Specialist who creates vehicles based on BMW cars.
- Hartge: A tuning company specialising in BMW, Mini and Range Rover cars.
- Husqvarna Motorcycles
- Land Rover: Sold to Ford, now bought by Indian automaker Tata; the current Range Rover was developed during BMW's ownership of the company and until recently was powered by their 4.4 L V8 petrol (gasoline) engine and BMW 3.0 L I6 diesel engine.
- Mini: A small hatchback; inspired by the original Mini.
- MK-Motorsport: A tuning company specialising in BMW cars.
- Racing Dynamics: A tuning company and motor manufacturer specialising in BMW Group vehicles.
- Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited
- Rover: Owned by BMW from 1994 to 2000, BMW retained the Mini after selling off the rest of the company (see MG Rover Group)
- Turner Motorsport: A North American-based company specialising in tuning BMW vehicles for road and racetrack. Behind the factory-supported Schnitzer Motorsport team, Turner Motorsport has entered the highest number of professional races with BMW models.
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- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 "Annual Report 2010" (PDF). BMW Group. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved on 16 March 2011.
- ↑ "Fliegerschule St.Gallen – history" (in German). Archived from the original on 2007-05-28. Retrieved on 2008-08-24.
- ↑ Dr. Florian Triebel. "The Origin of the BMW Logo: Fact and Fiction" (PDF). Mobile Tradition live / Issue 01.2005. Retrieved on 1 August 2009.
- ↑ Williams, Stephen (2010-01-07). "Origins of BMW roundel", Wheels.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-28.
- ↑ "BMW Model IIIA - Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum". Nasm.si.edu. Retrieved on 2010-04-18.
- ↑ Toronto Star July 3 2004
- ↑ http://www.bmwgroup.com/bmwgroup_prod/e/nav/index.html?http://www.bmwgroup.com/bmwgroup_prod/e/0_0_www_bmwgroup_com/home/home.html
- ↑ "World Motor Vehicle Production, OICA correspondents survey 2006" (PDF). Retrieved on 2010-08-28.
- ↑ Hilton Holloway (2011-02-11). "The future of BMW's engines". Autocar.
- ↑ http://www.solunet-infomex.com/mexbdir/company.cfm?company=1550462_BMW_TOLUCA_PLANTA_DE_AUTOMOVILES_LERMA_Estado_De_Mexico
- ↑ http://www.bmwgroup.com/bmwgroup_prod/e/nav/index.html?http://www.bmwgroup.com/bmwgroup_prod/e/0_0_www_bmwgroup_com/home/home.html
- ↑ BMW Buys Husqvarna From MV Agusta roadracingworld.com retrieved on September 30, 2007
- ↑ "BMW 5-Series Gran Turismo". reported by newBMWseries.com. Retrieved on 2009-10-22.
- ↑ "Equipment and Technical data" (PDF). BMW AG. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
- ↑ "History of Dakar – RETROSPECTIVE 1979–2007" (PDF). Dakar. Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved on 16 February 2010.
- ↑ "BMW to quit F1 at end of season", BBC News (29 July 2009). Retrieved on 29 July 2009.
- ↑ "BMW, USOC make 6-year sponsorship deal official", CNN (2010-07-26).
- ↑ Grahl, C: “Green finishing”, page 35(4). Industrial Paint & Powder, 2006
- ↑ Bird, J and Walker, M: “BMW A Sustainable Future? ”, page 11. Wild World 2005
- ↑ "Not as Green at it Seems".
- ↑ "BMW Online Shop". Shop.bmwgroup.com (2009-03-21). Retrieved on 2009-04-11.
- ↑ BMWonline – 1-888-BMW-ONLINE (888-269-6654) BMW, clothes, clothing, shirts, sweaters, polos, models, miniatures, shirt, tee, tees, sweater, polo, model, miniature, jewelry, motorcycle, leathers, boots, gloves
- ↑ W.P. BMW Group Canada Inc. http://www.bmw.ca
- ↑ FAQ from the BMW Z4 Press Conference, as reported by BMWBLOG, May 8, 2009. http://www.bmwblog.com/2009/05/08/faq-from-the-recent-bmw-press-conference
- ↑ "Preview: 2011 BMW 335is Coupe - Posted Driving". Network.nationalpost.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-28.
- ↑ Cunningham, Wayne (2010-07-13). "2011 BMW 335is (photos) - CNET Reviews". Reviews.cnet.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-28.
- ↑ Carver, Robert. BMW San Antonio. BMW Information http://www.mrbimmer.com/bmw.information
- ↑ "Bee em / BMW Motorcycle Club of Victoria Inc". National Library of Australia. Retrieved on 2009-10-23.
- ↑ "No Toupees allowed". Bangkok Post (209-10-02). Retrieved on 2009-10-24.
- ↑ "Bimmer vs. Beemer". boston-bmwcca.org. Retrieved on 2007-06-23.
- ↑ THE NOSE: FWay students knew who they were voting for in school poll :[South Sound Edition]. (2002, October 25). The News Tribune,p. B01. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID: 223030831) |quote=We're told by auto snobs that the word 'beemer' actually refers to the BMW motorcycle, and that when referring to a BMW automobile, the word's pronounced 'bimmer.'
- ↑ 55.0 55.1
- ↑ "Corporate Information: History". BMW South Africa.
- ↑ "BMW South Africa – Plant Rosslyn". Bmwplant.co.za. Retrieved on 2009-04-11.
- ↑ BMW AG (2006-10-16). "Out with the old, in with the new", http://www.worldcarfans.com/10609256128/last-of-first-generation-bmw-x5-manufactured. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="2008-09-04">2008-09-04</time>.
- ↑ Bennett, Jeff (October 14, 2010). "BMW to Expand Plant in South Carolina", p. B5.
- ↑ Interone Worldwide GmbH (2006-12-11). "International BMW website". Bmw.in. Retrieved on 2009-04-11.
- ↑ General Overview Brilliance Auto Official Site
- ↑ "BMW opens China factory – TestDriven.co.uk". Testdriven.co.uk (2004-05-21). Retrieved on 2009-04-11.
- ↑ Brands and Products > BMW Sedan Brilliance Auto Official Site
- ↑ "Reasons for Selection, 2009 Greater Toronto's Top Employers Competition".
- BMW Group International
- BMW International Website
- BMW autos at the Open Directory Project
- BMW motorcycles at the Open Directory Project
|BMW road car timeline, 1920s–1950s — next »|
|Straight-4||Dixi 3/15/Dixi 3/15 DA/Dixi 3/15 DA1/||3/15 DA2/ 3/15 DA4||3/20||309|
|Sports car||DA-3 Wartburg||315/1, 319/1||328|
|« previous — BMW road car timeline, 1950s-1980s — next »|
|Microcar||Isetta 250 / 300|
|Small family car||600||LS/700|
|Compact exec||3 Series||340/340-2*||1602/2002||E21||E30|
|6 Series||327*||503||3200 CS||2000CS||E9||E24|
|Sports car/GT||M1, 8 Series||E26||E31|
|*made in East Germany as EMW|
|« previous — BMW road car timeline, 1980s–present|
|Small family||3 Compact||E36/5||E46/5|
|1 Series||E81 / E82 / E87 / E88|
|Compact exec||3 Series||E21||E30||E36||E46||E90 / E91 / E92 / E93|
|Executive||5 Series||E12||E28||E34||E39||E60 / E61||F10 / F11|
|Luxury Coupé||6 Series||E24||E63 / E64||F12 / F13|
|Luxury||7 Series||E23||E32||E38||E65 / E66 / E67 / E68||F01 / F02 / F03 / F04|
|Roadster||Z Series||E30 (Z1)||E36/7 & E36/8 (Z3)||E85 / E86 (Z4)||E89 (Z4)|
|M||1 Series M Coupe||E82 M|
|M3||E30 M3||E36 M3||E46 M3||E90/92/93 M3|
|M5||E28 M5||E34 M5||E39 M5||E60/61 M5|
|M6||E24 M635CSi/"M6"||E63/64 M6|
|M Roadster||E36/7 (Z3) M||E85 (Z4) M|
|M Coupé||E36/8 M Coupé||E86 M Coupé|
|Supercar/GT||E26 (M1)||E31 (8 series)||E52 (Z8)|
|X6||E71 / E72|
|Progressive Activity||5 GT||F07|
|British Leyland – car companies & marques|
|Jaguar||SS Cars||Jaguar|| Jaguar|
|BMH||British Leyland|| Jaguar|
|Rover||Rover||Rover||Rover|| Austin Rover Group|
Land Rover Group (BL plc)
|Rover Group (BAe)|| Rover Group|
|MG & Rover (BMW)|
|Land Rover||PAG (Ford)|
|Standard||Standard||Standard Triumph||Leyland Motors||British Motor Heritage|
|MG||Morris Garages (MG)|| Rover Group|
|MG Rover Group (Phoenix)|| SAIC|
|Vanden Plas||Vanden Plas|
|Austin-Healey||Austin (BMC) & Donald Healey|