The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells motor vehicles, and is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue.
The term automotive industry usually does not include industries dedicated to automobiles after delivery to the customer, such as repair shops and fuel filling stations.
About 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 260 billion gallons of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. In the opinion of some, urban transport systems based around the car have proved unsustainable, consuming excessive energy, affecting the health of populations, and delivering a declining level of service despite increasing investments. Many of these negative impacts fall disproportionately on those social groups who are also least likely to own and drive cars.[dead link] [dead link] The sustainable transport movement focuses on solutions to these problems.
The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia.
The first practical automobile with a petrol engine was built by Karl Benz in 1885 in Mannheim, Germany. Benz was granted a patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the first production of automobiles in 1888, after Bertha Benz, his wife, had proved with the first long-distance trip in August 1888 (from Mannheim to Pforzheim and back) that the horseless coach was absolutely suitable for daily use. Since 2008 a Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event.
Soon after, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart in 1889 designed a vehicle from scratch to be an automobile, rather than a horse-drawn carriage fitted with an engine. They also are usually credited as inventors of the first motorcycle, the Daimler Reitwagen, in 1885, but Italy's Enrico Bernardi, of the University of Padua, in 1882, patented a 0.024 horsepower (17.9 W) 122 cc (7.4 cu in) one-cylinder petrol motor, fitting it into his son's tricycle, making it at least a candidate for the first automobile, and first motorcycle;.:p.26 Bernardi enlarged the tricycle in 1892 to carry two adults.:p.26
- Main article: Automotive industry by country
Crisis in the automotive industry
- Main article: Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2009
World motor vehicle production
Global Production of Motorvehicles
(cars and commercial vehicles)
- Main article: List of countries by motor vehicle production
|« previous year Top 20 motor vehicle producing countries 2010 next year »|
|Motor vehicle production (units)|
|Reference: "Production Statistics". OICA. Retrieved on 2011-04-07.|
|« previous year — Top motor vehicle manufacturing companies by volume 2009 next year »|
|Total motor vehicle production|
|Key||Cars||Light Commercial Vehicles||Heavy Commercial Vehicles||Heavy Buses|
|Fujian Motor Industry Group||103,171|
|Key||Cars||Light Commercial Vehicles||Heavy Commercial Vehicles||Heavy Buses|
|Total: 60,499,159||Cars: 51,075,480||LCV: 7,817,520||HCV: 1,305,755||Heavy Bus: 300,404|
|Reference: "World motor vehicle production by manufacturer: World ranking of manufacturers 2009". OICA (July 2010).|
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.
Notable current relationships include:
- Daimler AG holds a 20% stake in Eicher Motors, a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ, a 10% stake in Tesla Motors, a 6.75% stake in Tata Motors and a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Motors alliance. They are in the process of selling back their 40% stake in McLaren Group. This process will be finalized in 2011.
- Dongfeng Motor Corporation is involved in joint ventures with several companies around the world, including: Honda (Japan), Hyundai (South Korea), Nissan (Japan), Nissan Diesel (Sweden), and PSA Peugeot Citroen (France).
- Fiat holds a 90% stake in Ferrari and a 30% stake in Chrysler, that can be increased to 51%; with the option of increasing its stake further.
- Ford Motor Company holds a 3% stake in Mazda and an 8.3% share in Aston Martin.
- Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in Manganese Bronze Holdings.
- General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) have two joint ventures in Shanghai General Motors and SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile.
- Hyundai Kia Automotive Group holds a 38.67% stake in Kia Motors, down from the 51% that it acquired in 1998.
- Renault Pars is a joint venture, 51 percent of which belongs to Renault of France. Forty-nine percent of Renault Pars' shares is jointly held by Iran's Industrial Development and Renovation Organization, IKCO and Saipa. The company was established in 2003.
- MAN SE holds a 17.01% voting stake in Scania.
- Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% stake in Volkswagen Group. Due to liquidity problems, Volkswagen Group is now in the process of acquiring Porsche. (Deal due to be completed mid 2011)[citation (source) needed]
- Renault-Nissan Motors have an alliance involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 44.3% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares. The alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG.
- Renault holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ and 20.5% of the voting stakes in Volvo Group.
- Toyota holds a 51% stake in Daihatsu, and 16.5% in Fuji Heavy Industries, parent company of Subaru.
- Volkswagen Group and FAW have a joint venture.
- Volkswagen Group and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) have a joint venture in Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive.
- Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights), and a 29% stake in MAN SE.
- Volkswagen Group has a 49.9% stake in Porsche AG. Volkswagen is in the process of acquiring Porsche, which is due to be completed in mid-2011.
- Volkswagen Group has a 19.9% stake in Suzuki, and Suzuki has a 5% stake in Volkswagen.
Top vehicle manufacturing groups (by volume)
The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2009 end of year production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.
|Marque||Country of origin||Ownership||Markets|
|1. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan)|
|Daihatsu||Subsidiary||Global, except North America and Australia|
|Hino||Subsidiary||Asia Pacific, North America and South America|
|Lexus||Division||Global, except Iran and Caucasus|
|Toyota||Division||Global, except Iran and Caucasus|
|2. General Motors Company ( United States)|
|Buick||Division||North America, Middle East, East Asia, except Japan|
|Cadillac||Division||Global, except South America, South Asia, South East Asia, Pacific|
|Chevrolet||Division||Global, except Australia, New Zealand|
|GMC||Division||North America, Middle East|
|Holden||Subsidiary||Australia, New Zealand|
|Opel||Subsidiary||Europe (except United Kingdom), Middle East/Africa, Asia/Pacific, South America|
|3. Volkswagen Group AG ( Germany)|
|SEAT||Subsidiary||Europe, South America, North Africa, Middle East|
|Škoda||Subsidiary||Global, except North America, Japan and South Africa|
|Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles||Subsidiary||Global|
|4. Renault-Nissan ( France Japan)|
|Dacia||Subsidiary||Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia, except Japan|
|Renault||Division||Global, except North America, South Korea|
|Renault Samsung||Subsidiary||South America, Asia, except Japan and China|
|Infiniti||Division||Global, except Japan, South America and Africa|
|5. Ford Motor Company ( United States)|
|Lincoln||Division||North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea|
|6. Hyundai Kia Automotive Group ( South Korea)|
|Hyundai||Division||Global, except Mexico|
|Kia||Division||Global, except Mexico|
|7. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France)|
|Citroën||Subsidiary||Global, except North America, South Asia|
|Peugeot||Subsidiary||Global, except North America, South Asia|
|8. Honda Motor Company ( Japan)|
|Acura||Division||North America, East Asia, except Japan|
|9. Fiat S.p.A. ( Italy)|
|Abarth||Subsidiary||Global, except North America|
|Fiat Professional||Subsidiary||Global, except North America and Japan|
|Iveco||Subsidiary||Global, except North America|
|Lancia||Subsidiary||Europe and Japan|
|10. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan)|
|Maruti Suzuki||Subsidiary||India, Middle East, South America|
|Pak Suzuki Motors||Subsidiary||Pakistan|
|Magyar Suzuki||Subsidiary||Hungary, Europe|
|11. Daimler AG ( Germany)|
|Freightliner||Subsidiary||North America, South Africa|
|Smart||Division||North America, Europe, Japan, South East Asia, South Africa|
|Thomas Built||Subsidiary||North America|
|Western Star||Subsidiary||North America|
|12. Chana Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)|
|Chana||Division||China, South Africa|
|13. BMW AG ( Germany)|
|14. Mazda Motor Corporation ( Japan)|
|15. Chrysler Group, LLC ( United States)|
|16. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ( Japan)|
|17. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)|
|18. Tata Motors, Ltd ( India)|
|Tata||Division||India, South Africa|
|Tata Daewoo||Subsidiary||South Korea|
|19. Dongfeng Motor Corporation ( People's Republic of China)|
|20. First Automotive Group Corporation ( People's Republic of China)|
|21. Chery Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)|
|Chery||Division||China, Africa, South East Asia, Russia|
|22. Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd ( Japan)|
|23. BYD Auto ( People's Republic of China)|
|24. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation ( People's Republic of China)|
|MG||Subsidiary||United Kingdom, Chile, Argentina, China|
|25. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)|
|26. Geely Automobile ( People's Republic of China)|
|Geely||Division||China, Russia, North Africa|
|27. Isuzu Motors, Ltd ( Japan)|
|Isuzu||Division||Global, except North America|
|28. Brilliance China Automotive Holding, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)|
|Brilliance||Division||China, North Africa|
|29. OAO AvtoVAZ ( Russia)|
|Lada||Division||Russia, Europe, North Africa|
|30. Great Wall Motor Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)|
|Great Wall||Division||China, South Africa, Russia, North Africa, Australia|
|31. Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd ( India)|
|Mahindra||Division||India, South East Asia, Europe, North Africa, North America|
|32. Shandong Kaima ( China)|
|33. Proton Holdings, Bhd ( Malaysia)|
|Proton||Division||Asia Pacific (except Japan and South Africa), United Kingdom, Middle East|
|34. China National Heavy Duty Truck Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)|
|35. AB Volvo ( Sweden)|
|Renault (trucks)||Subsidiary||Global, except Japan|
|36. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)|
|37. Fujian Motor Industry Group Company ( People's Republic of China)|
|38. Kuozui Motors, Ltd ( Taiwan)|
|39. Shaanxi Automobile Group Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)|
|40. Porsche ( Germany)|
|41. Ziyang Nanjun Automobile Co., Ltd. ( People's Republic of China)|
|42. GAZ Group ( Russia)|
|43. Navistar International Corporation ( United States)|
|International||Division||North America, South Asia|
|44. Guangzhou Automobile Group ( China)|
|45. Paccar, Inc ( United States)|
|DAF||Subsidiary||Global, except North America|
|46. Chenzhou Ji'ao ( China)|
|47. Qingling Motors Company Ltd. ( China)|
|48. Hebei ZXAUTO ( China)|
|49. Ashok Leyland ( India)|
* Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.7 percent share in the Volkswagen Group. However, Volkswagen Group will acquire Porsche AG, the automotive manufacturer under a new "Integrated Automotive Group". This merger/acquisition is expected to be fully completed in mid-2011.
Minor automotive manufacturers
- Main article: Minor automotive manufacturing groups
There are many automobile manufacturers other than the major global companies. They are mostly regional or operating in niche markets.
- "Automobile Industry Introduction". Plunkett Research (2008). Retrieved on 2010-09-09.
- Kenworthy, J R (2004). "Transport Energy Use and Greenhouse Emissions in Urban Passenger Transport Systems" (PDF). Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy. Retrieved on 2008-07-22.
- World Health Organisation, Europe. "Health effects of transport". Archived from the original on 2006-02-06. Retrieved on 2008-08-29.
- Social Exclusion Unit, Office of the Prime Minister (UK). "Making the Connections - final report on transport and social exclusion" (PDF). Retrieved on 2003-02-01.
- Paul A. Eisenstein Building BRIC's: 4 Markets Could Soon Dominate the Auto World at TheDetroitBureau.com
- Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
- "Ford And Mazda To Sign Divorce Papers Tomorrow". Thetruthaboutcars.com (2009-11-17). Retrieved on 2011-01-11.
- "IKCO takes lead in quality Tondar 90 production". Previous.presstv.com (2009-12-24). Retrieved on 2010-09-09.
- "World Motor Vehicle Production: World Ranking of Manufacturers 2009" (PDF). OICA. Retrieved on 2010-07-27.
- "GM Slips to Number Two Worldwide, Ford to Fourth". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved on 2010-06-12.
- "TTAC Announces World's Top Ten Automakers". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved on 2010-06-12.
- Porsche Automobil Holding SE, Stuttgart (20 November 2009). "Porsche Supervisory Board agrees on the contracts of implementation", http://www.porsche-se.com/pho/en/news/?pool=pho&id=2009-11-20. Retrieved on .
- Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft (13 August 2009). "Volkswagen Supervisory Board approves Comprehensive Agreement for an Integrated Automotive Group with Porsche", http://www.volkswagenag.com/vwag/vwcorp/info_center/en/news/2009/08/Volkswagen_Aufsichtsrat_stimmt_Grundlagenvereinbarung_fuer.html. Retrieved on .
- Market Share Auto
- Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
- Automotive engineering learning website
- All vehicle manufacturers in the world (in Dutch with English etc. translation)
- Car makes of the world, 1894—present
- Automotive history and photos
- Automaker Rankings 2007: The Environmental Performance of Car Companies
- List of car trims (car sub models) 1989–present
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