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The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells motor vehicles, and is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue.

The term automotive industry usually does not include industries dedicated to automobiles after delivery to the customer, such as repair shops and fuel filling stations.

Consumption trends

About 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 260 billion gallons of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly.[1] In the opinion of some, urban transport systems based around the car have proved unsustainable, consuming excessive energy, affecting the health of populations, and delivering a declining level of service despite increasing investments. Many of these negative impacts fall disproportionately on those social groups who are also least likely to own and drive cars.[2][3][dead link] [4][dead link] The sustainable transport movement focuses on solutions to these problems.

The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia.[5]

History

The first practical automobile with a petrol engine was built by Karl Benz in 1885 in Mannheim, Germany. Benz was granted a patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the first production of automobiles in 1888, after Bertha Benz, his wife, had proved with the first long-distance trip in August 1888 (from Mannheim to Pforzheim and back) that the horseless coach was absolutely suitable for daily use. Since 2008 a Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event.

Soon after, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart in 1889 designed a vehicle from scratch to be an automobile, rather than a horse-drawn carriage fitted with an engine. They also are usually credited as inventors of the first motorcycle, the Daimler Reitwagen, in 1885, but Italy's Enrico Bernardi, of the University of Padua, in 1882, patented a 0.024 horsepower (17.9 W) 122 cc (7.4 cu in) one-cylinder petrol motor, fitting it into his son's tricycle, making it at least a candidate for the first automobile, and first motorcycle;.[6]:p.26 Bernardi enlarged the tricycle in 1892 to carry two adults.[6]:p.26

Main article: Automotive industry by country

Crisis in the automotive industry

Main article: Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2009

World motor vehicle production

See also: List of countries by motor vehicle production

By year

Global Production of Motorvehicles

(cars and commercial vehicles)

Year Production Change Source
1997 52,987,000   [7]
1998 57,987,000 -2.70% [7]
1999 56,258,892 2.98% [8]
2000 58,374,162 3.80% [9]
2001 56,304,925 -3.50% [10]
2002 58,994,318 4.80% [11]
2003 60,663,225 2.80% [12]
2004 64,496,220 6.30% [13]
2005 66,482,439 3.10% [14]
2006 69,222,975 4.10% [15]
2007 73,266,061 5.80% [16]
2008 70,520,493 -3.70% [17]
2009 60,986,985 -13.50% [18]


By country

Main article: List of countries by motor vehicle production

By manufacturer


Company relationships

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:[citation needed]

Top vehicle manufacturing groups (by volume)

The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2009 end of year production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA)[21] for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.[22][23]

Marque Country of origin Ownership Markets
1. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Daihatsu Japan Subsidiary Global, except North America and Australia
Hino Japan Subsidiary Asia Pacific, North America and South America
Lexus Japan Division Global, except Iran and Caucasus
Scion United States Division North America
Toyota Japan Division Global, except Iran and Caucasus
2. General Motors Company ( United States)
Buick United States Division North America, Middle East, East Asia, except Japan
Cadillac United States Division Global, except South America, South Asia, South East Asia, Pacific
Chevrolet United States Division Global, except Australia, New Zealand
GMC United States Division North America, Middle East
Holden Australia Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
Opel Germany Subsidiary Europe (except United Kingdom), Middle East/Africa, Asia/Pacific, South America
Vauxhall United Kingdom Division United Kingdom
3. Volkswagen Group AG ( Germany)
Audi Germany Subsidiary Global
Bentley United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Bugatti France Subsidiary Global
Lamborghini Italy Subsidiary Global
Scania Sweden Subsidiary Global
SEAT Spain Subsidiary Europe, South America, North Africa, Middle East
Škoda Czech Republic Subsidiary Global, except North America, Japan and South Africa
Volkswagen Germany Subsidiary Global
Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Germany Subsidiary Global
4. Renault-Nissan ( France Japan)
AutoVAZ Russia Subsidiary Russia
Dacia Romania Subsidiary Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia, except Japan
Renault France Division Global, except North America, South Korea
Renault Samsung South Korea Subsidiary South America, Asia, except Japan and China
Infiniti Japan Division Global, except Japan, South America and Africa
Nissan Japan Division Global
5. Ford Motor Company ( United States)
Ford United States Division Global
Lincoln United States Division North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea
6. Hyundai Kia Automotive Group ( South Korea)
Hyundai South Korea Division Global, except Mexico
Kia South Korea Division Global, except Mexico
7. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France)
Citroën France Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia
Peugeot France Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia
8. Honda Motor Company ( Japan)
Acura Japan Division North America, East Asia, except Japan
Honda Japan Division Global
9. Fiat S.p.A. ( Italy)
Abarth Italy Subsidiary Global, except North America
Alfa Romeo Italy Subsidiary Global
Ferrari Italy Subsidiary Global
Fiat Italy Subsidiary Global
Fiat Professional Italy Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan
Iveco Italy Subsidiary Global, except North America
Lancia Italy Subsidiary Europe and Japan
Maserati Italy Subsidiary Global
10. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Maruti Suzuki India Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America
Pak Suzuki Motors Pakistan Subsidiary Pakistan
Magyar Suzuki Hungary Subsidiary Hungary, Europe
Suzuki Japan Division Global
11. Daimler AG ( Germany)
Freightliner United States Subsidiary North America, South Africa
Master Pakistan Subsidiary Pakistan
Maybach Germany Division Global
Mercedes-Benz Germany Division Global
Mitsubishi Fuso Japan Subsidiary Global
Orion Canada Subsidiary North America
Setra Germany Subsidiary Europe
Smart Germany Division North America, Europe, Japan, South East Asia, South Africa
Thomas Built United States Subsidiary North America
Western Star United States Subsidiary North America
12. Chana Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Chana People's Republic of China Division China, South Africa
Hafei People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
13. BMW AG ( Germany)
BMW Germany Division Global
MINI United Kingdom Division Global
Rolls-Royce United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
14. Mazda Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Mazda Japan Division Global
15. Chrysler Group, LLC ( United States)
Chrysler United States Division Global
Dodge United States Division Global
Jeep United States Division Global
Ram United States Division North America
16. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ( Japan)
Mitsubishi Japan Division Global
17. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
BAW People's Republic of China Division China
Foton People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
18. Tata Motors, Ltd ( India)
Hispano Spain Subsidiary Europe
Jaguar United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Land Rover United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Tata India Division India, South Africa
Tata Daewoo South Korea Subsidiary South Korea
19. Dongfeng Motor Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
Dongfeng People's Republic of China Division China
20. First Automotive Group Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
Besturn People's Republic of China Division China
Freewind People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
Haima People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
Hongqi People's Republic of China Division China
Jiaxing People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
Vita People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
Xiali People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
21. Chery Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Chery People's Republic of China Division China, Africa, South East Asia, Russia
Riich People's Republic of China Division China
Rely People's Republic of China Division China
22. Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd ( Japan)
Subaru Japan Division Global
23. BYD Auto ( People's Republic of China)
BYD People's Republic of China Division China, Russia
24. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
MG United Kingdom Subsidiary United Kingdom, Chile, Argentina, China
SsangYong** South Korea Subsidiary Global
Roewe People's Republic of China Division China
Soyat People's Republic of China Division China
Yuejin People's Republic of China Division China
25. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
JAC People's Republic of China Division China
26. Geely Automobile ( People's Republic of China)
Geely People's Republic of China Division China, Russia, North Africa
Maple People's Republic of China Division China
Volvo (Cars) Sweden Subsidiary Global
27. Isuzu Motors, Ltd ( Japan)
Isuzu Japan Division Global, except North America
28. Brilliance China Automotive Holding, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Brilliance People's Republic of China Division China, North Africa
Jinbei People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
29. OAO AvtoVAZ ( Russia)
Lada Russia Division Russia, Europe, North Africa
VAZ Russia Division Russia, Europe
30. Great Wall Motor Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Great Wall People's Republic of China Division China, South Africa, Russia, North Africa, Australia
31. Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd ( India)
Mahindra India Division India, South East Asia, Europe, North Africa, North America
32. Shandong Kaima ( China)
Kaima People's Republic of China Division China
Jubao People's Republic of China Division China
Aofeng People's Republic of China Division China
33. Proton Holdings, Bhd ( Malaysia)
Proton Malaysia Division Asia Pacific (except Japan and South Africa), United Kingdom, Middle East
Lotus United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
34. China National Heavy Duty Truck Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Sinotruk Hong Kong Division China
35. AB Volvo ( Sweden)
Mack United States Subsidiary Global
Nissan Diesel Japan Subsidiary Global
NovaBus Canada Subsidiary North America
Prevost Canada Subsidiary North America
Renault (trucks) France Subsidiary Global, except Japan
Volvo (trucks) Sweden Division Global
36. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Lifan People's Republic of China Division China
37. Fujian Motor Industry Group Company ( People's Republic of China)
Soueast People's Republic of China Division China
38. Kuozui Motors, Ltd ( Taiwan)
Kuozui Republic of China Subsidiary Taiwan
39. Shaanxi Automobile Group Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Shaanxi People's Republic of China Division China
40. Porsche ( Germany)
Porsche Germany Subsidiary Global
41. Ziyang Nanjun Automobile Co., Ltd. ( People's Republic of China)
Nanjun People's Republic of China Division China
42. GAZ Group ( Russia)
GAZ Russia Subsidiary Russia
KAvZ Russia Subsidiary Russia
LiAZ Russia Subsidiary Russia
UralAZ Russia Division Russia
43. Navistar International Corporation ( United States)
IC United States Subsidiary North America
International United States Division North America, South Asia
44. Guangzhou Automobile Group ( China)
Changfeng People's Republic of China Division China
45. Paccar, Inc ( United States)
DAF Netherlands Subsidiary Global, except North America
Kenworth United States Division North America
Leyland United Kingdom Subsidiary Europe
Peterbilt United States Division North America
46. Chenzhou Ji'ao ( China)
Ji'ao People's Republic of China Division China
47. Qingling Motors Company Ltd. ( China)
Qingling People's Republic of China Division China
48. Hebei ZXAUTO ( China)
Zhongxing People's Republic of China Division China
49. Ashok Leyland ( India)
Ashok Leyland India Division India

Notes

* Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.7 percent share in the Volkswagen Group.[24] However, Volkswagen Group will acquire Porsche AG, the automotive manufacturer under a new "Integrated Automotive Group". This merger/acquisition is expected to be fully completed in mid-2011.[25][26]

** Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation is in the process of selling SsangYong Motor Company to Mahindra & Mahindra.[when?]

Minor automotive manufacturers

Main article: Minor automotive manufacturing groups

There are many automobile manufacturers other than the major global companies. They are mostly regional or operating in niche markets.

See also

References

  1. "Automobile Industry Introduction". Plunkett Research (2008). Retrieved on 2010-09-09.
  2. Kenworthy, J R (2004). "Transport Energy Use and Greenhouse Emissions in Urban Passenger Transport Systems" (PDF). Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy. Retrieved on 2008-07-22.
  3. World Health Organisation, Europe. "Health effects of transport". Archived from the original on 2006-02-06. Retrieved on 2008-08-29.
  4. Social Exclusion Unit, Office of the Prime Minister (UK). "Making the Connections - final report on transport and social exclusion" (PDF). Retrieved on 2003-02-01.
  5. Paul A. Eisenstein Building BRIC's: 4 Markets Could Soon Dominate the Auto World at TheDetroitBureau.com
  6. 6.0 6.1 Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  7. 7.0 7.1 http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/cl98type.pdf
  8. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/1999-statistics/
  9. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2000-statistics/
  10. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2001-statistics/
  11. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2002-statistics/
  12. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2003-statistics/
  13. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2004-statistics/
  14. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2005-statistics/
  15. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2006-statistics/
  16. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2007-statistics/
  17. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2008-statistics/
  18. http://www.oica.net/category/production-statistics/
  19. "Ford And Mazda To Sign Divorce Papers Tomorrow". Thetruthaboutcars.com (2009-11-17). Retrieved on 2011-01-11.
  20. "IKCO takes lead in quality Tondar 90 production". Previous.presstv.com (2009-12-24). Retrieved on 2010-09-09.
  21. "World Motor Vehicle Production: World Ranking of Manufacturers 2009" (PDF). OICA. Retrieved on 2010-07-27.
  22. "GM Slips to Number Two Worldwide, Ford to Fourth". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved on 2010-06-12.
  23. "TTAC Announces World's Top Ten Automakers". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved on 2010-06-12.
  24. "Volkswagen Group - Shareholder Structure". Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft. VolkswagenAG.com. Retrieved on 22 December 2009.
  25. Porsche Automobil Holding SE, Stuttgart (20 November 2009). "Porsche Supervisory Board agrees on the contracts of implementation", http://www.porsche-se.com/pho/en/news/?pool=pho&id=2009-11-20. Retrieved on . 
  26. Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft (13 August 2009). "Volkswagen Supervisory Board approves Comprehensive Agreement for an Integrated Automotive Group with Porsche", http://www.volkswagenag.com/vwag/vwcorp/info_center/en/news/2009/08/Volkswagen_Aufsichtsrat_stimmt_Grundlagenvereinbarung_fuer.html. Retrieved on . 

External links

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