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Audi
Type Private company
(Frankfurt Stock Exchange Xetra: NSU)
Founded Zwickau, Germany (16 July 1909)[1]
Founder(s) August Horch
Headquarters Ingolstadt, Germany
Number of locations Production locations:
Germany:
Ingolstadt & Neckarsulm
Hungary: Győr
Belgium: Brussels
China: Changchun
India: Aurangabad
Brazil: Curitiba
Area served Worldwide
Key people Rupert Stadler
Chairman of the Board of Management,
Wolfgang Egger
Head of Design
Industry Automotive industry
Products Automobiles, Engines
Revenue (turnover) € 24.339 billion (2009)[2]
Profit 1.850 billion (2009)[2]
Total assets 16.832 billion (2009-12-31)[2]
Total equity 3.451 billion (2009-12-31)[2]
Employees 46,372 (2009)[2]
Parent Volkswagen Group
Divisions FAW-Volkswagen (joint venture)
Subsidiaries Audi do Brasil e Cia (Curitiba, Brazil)
Audi Hungaria Motor Kft. (Györ, Hungary)
Audi Senna Ltda. (Brazil)
Automobili Lamborghini Holding S.p.A (Sant'Agata Bolognese, Italy)
Autogerma S.p.A. (Verona, Italy)
quattro GmbH (Neckarsulm, Germany)
Website audi.com

Audi AG (Xetra: NSU) is a German manufacturer of a range of automobiles, from supermini to crossover SUVs in various body styles and price ranges that are marketed under the Audi brand (German pronunciation: [ˈaʊdi]), positioned as the premium brand within the Volkswagen Group.[3]

The company is headquartered in Ingolstadt, Germany, and has been a wholly owned (99.55%[4]) subsidiary of Volkswagen AG since 1966, following a phased purchase of its predecessor, Auto Union, from its former owner, Daimler-Benz. Volkswagen relaunched the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series.

The company name is based on the surname of the founder August Horch, his surname meaning listen in German—which, when translated into Latin, becomes Audi.

Within Volkswagen GroupEdit

The largest shareholder of Audi AG is Volkswagen AG, which holds over 99 percent of the share capital. Volkswagen AG includes the consolidated accounts of Audi AG in its own financial statements. In recent years, the possibility of Audi being spun off or otherwise divested by Volkswagen has been mooted [5]

From 2002 up to 2007, Audi headed the Audi Brand Group, the Volkswagen Group's automotive sub-division, consisted of Audi together with SEAT and Lamborghini, that was focused on more sporty values, with the marques' product vehicles and performance being under the higher responsibility of the Audi brand.[6][7][8]

HistoryEdit

Birth of the company and its nameEdit

Audi Typ E (1923)

Audi Type E

On November 14, 1899, August Horch (1868–1951) established the company A. Horch & Cie. in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne, but because of dispute between him and the supervisory board, he had to leave the company. A few years later, he established a second company, Horch Automobil-Werke GmbH. The company traces its origins back to 1909 and August Horch. The first Audi automobile, the Audi Type A 10/22 hp (16 kW) Sport-Phaeton, was produced in 1910 in Zwickau.[9]

In 1909, Horch was forced out of the company he had founded.[10] He then started a new company in Zwickau and continued using the Horch brand. His former partners sued him for trademark infringement, and the German Supreme Court (Reichsgericht in Berlin)[11] finally determined that the Horch brand belonged to his former company.[10]

August Horch was barred from using his own family name in his new car business, so he called a meeting with his best business friends, Paul and Franz Fikentscher from Zwickau. At the apartment of Franz Fikentscher, they discussed how to come up with a new name for the company. During this meeting, Franz's son was quietly studying Latin in a corner of the room. Several times he looked like he was on the verge of saying something but would just swallow his words and continue working, until he finally blurted out, "Father – audiatur et altera pars... wouldn't it be a good idea to call it audi instead of horch?"[12] "Horch!" in German means "Hark!" or "hear", which is "Audi" in Latin. The idea was enthusiastically accepted by everyone attending the meeting.[13] The first Audi car, the Type B, 10/28PS was delivered early in 1910.[14]

Audi started with a 2612 cc inline-four engine model followed by a 3564 cc model, as well as 4680 cc and 5720 cc models. These cars were successful even in sporting events. The first six cylinder model, 4655 cc appeared in 1924.

August Horch left the Audi company in 1920 for a high position at the ministry of transport, but he was still involved with Audi as a member of the board of trustees. In September 1921, Audi became the first German car manufacturer to present a production car, the Audi Type K, with left-handed drive.[15] Left-hand drive spread and established dominance during the 1920s because it provided a better view of oncoming traffic, making overtaking safer.[15]

Auto Union eraEdit

Main article: Auto Union

In August 1928 Jørgen Rasmussen, the owner of Dampf-Kraft-Wagen (DKW), acquired the majority of shares in Audiwerke AG.[16] In the same year, Rasmussen bought the remains of the U.S. automobile manufacturer Rickenbacker, including the manufacturing equipment for eight cylinder engines. These engines were used in Audi Zwickau and Audi Dresden models that were launched in 1929. At the same time, six-cylinder and four-cylinder (licensed from Peugeot) models were manufactured. Audi cars of that era were luxurious cars equipped with special bodywork.

In 1932, Audi merged with Horch, DKW, and Wanderer, to form Auto Union. It was during this period that the company offered the Audi Front that became the first European car to combine a six-cylinder engine with front-wheel drive. It used a powertrain shared with the Wanderer, but turned 180-degrees, so that the drive shaft faced the front.

Before World War II, Auto Union used the four interlinked rings that make up the Audi badge today, representing these four brands. This badge was used, however, only on Auto Union racing cars in that period while the member companies used their own names and emblems. The technological development became more and more concentrated and some Audi models were propelled by Horch or Wanderer built engines.

Reflecting the economic pressures of the time, Auto Union concentrated increasingly on smaller cars through the 1930s, so that by 1938 the company's DKW brand accounted for 17.9% of the German car market while Audi held only 0.1%.

Post–World War IIEdit

Like most German manufacturing, at the onset of World War II the Auto Union plants were retooled for military production, and were a target for allied bombing during the war, leaving them damaged.

Overrun by the Soviet Army in 1945, on the orders of the Soviet Union military administration the factories were dismantled as part of war reparations.[17] Following this, the company's entire assets were expropriated without compensation.[17] On 17 August 1948, Auto Union AG of Chemnitz was deleted from the commercial register.[16] These actions had the effect of liquidating Germany's Auto Union AG. The remains of the Audi plant of Zwickau became the VEB (for "People Owned Enterprise") Automobilwerk Zwickau or AWZ (in English: Automobile Works Zwickau).[18]

The former Audi factory in Zwickau restarted assembly of the pre-war-models in 1949. These DKW models were renamed to IFA F8 and IFA F9 and were similar to the West German versions. West and East German models were equipped with the traditional and renowned DKW two-stroke engines.

New Auto UnionEdit

A new West German headquartered Auto Union was launched in Ingolstadt, Bavaria with loans from the Bavarian state government and Marshall Plan aid.[19] The reformed company was launched 3 September 1949 and continued DKW's tradition of producing front-wheel drive vehicles with two-stroke engines.[17] This included production of a small but sturdy 125 cc motorcycle and a DKW delivery van, the DKW F 89 L at Ingolstadt. The Ingolstadt site was large, consisting of an extensive complex of formerly military buildings which was suitable for administration as well as vehicle warehousing and distribution, but at this stage there was at Ingolstadt no dedicated plant suitable for mass production of automobiles: for manufacturing the company's first post-war mass-market passenger car plant capacity in Düsseldorf was rented from Rheinmetall-Borsig. It was only ten years later, after the company had attracted an investor that funds became available for construction of major car plant at the Ingolstadt head office site.

In 1958 Daimler-Benz took an 87% holding in the Auto Union company, and this was increased to a 100% holding in 1959. However, small two-stroke cars were not the focus of the company's interests, and while the early 1960s saw major investment in new Mercedes models and in a state of the art factory for Auto Union's, the company's aging model range at this time did not benefit from the economic boom of the early 1960s to the same extent as competitor manufacturers such as Volkswagen and Opel. The decision to dispose of the Auto Union business was based on its lack of profitability.[20] Ironically, by the time they sold the business it also included a large new factory and near production-ready modern four-stroke engine, which would enable the Auto Union business, under a new owner and with the benefit of a rediscovered name, Audi.

In 1964 Volkswagen acquired a 50% holding in the business, which included the new factory in Ingolstadt and the trademark rights of the Auto Union. Eighteen months later, Volkswagen bought complete control of Ingolstadt, and by 1966 were using the spare capacity of the Ingolstadt plant to assemble an additional 60,000 Volkswagen Beetles per year.[21] Two-stroke engines became less popular during the 1960s as customers were more attracted to the smoother four-stroke engines. In September 1965, the DKW F102 was fitted with a four-stroke engine and a facelift for the car's front and rear. Volkswagen dumped the DKW brand because of its associations with two-stroke technology, and having classified the model internally as the F103, sold it simply as the "Audi." Later developments of the model were named for their horsepower ratings and sold as the Audi 60, 75, 80, and Super 90, selling until 1972.

Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F038791-0035, Wolfsburg, VW Autowerk

Audi 80 assembly line in Wolfsburg as of 1973

In 1969, Auto Union merged with NSU, based in Neckarsulm, near Stuttgart. In the 1950s, NSU had been the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles, but had moved on to produce small cars like the NSU Prinz, the TT and TTS versions of which are still popular as vintage race cars. NSU then focused on new rotary engines based on the ideas of Felix Wankel. In 1967, the new NSU Ro 80 was a car well ahead of its time in technical details such as aerodynamics, light weight, and safety. However, teething problems with the rotary engines put an end to the independence of NSU. The Neckarsulm plant is now used to produce the larger Audi models A6 and A8. The Neckarsulm factory is also home of the quattro GmbH, a subsidiary responsible for development and production of Audi high-performance models: the R8 and the "RS" model range.

The mid-sized car that NSU had been working on, the K70, was intended to slot between the rear-engined Prinz models and the futuristic NSU Ro 80. However, Volkswagen took the K70 for its own range, spelling the end of NSU as a separate brand.

Modern eraEdit

The new merged company was known as Audi NSU Auto Union AG, and saw the emergence of Audi as a separate brand for the first time since the pre-war era. Volkswagen introduced the Audi brand to the United States for the 1970 model year.

The first new car of this regime was the Audi 100 of 1968. This was soon joined by the Audi 80/Fox (which formed the basis for the 1973 Volkswagen Passat) in 1972 and the Audi 50 (later rebadged as the Volkswagen Polo) in 1974. The Audi 50 was a seminal design because it was the first incarnation of the Golf/Polo concept, one that led to a hugely successful world car.

Audi quattro

Audi Quattro

The Audi image at this time was a conservative one, and so, a proposal from chassis engineer Jörg Bensinger[22] was accepted to develop the four-wheel drive technology in Volkswagen's Iltis military vehicle for an Audi performance car and rally racing car. The performance car, introduced in 1980, was named the "Audi Quattro", a turbocharged coupé which was also the first German large-scale production vehicle to feature permanent all-wheel drive through a centre differential. Commonly referred to as the "Ur-Quattro" (the "Ur-" prefix is a German augmentative used, in this case, to mean "original" and is also applied to the first generation of Audi's S4 and S6 Sport Saloons, as in "UrS4" and "UrS6"), few of these vehicles were produced (all hand-built by a single team), but the model was a great success in rallying. Prominent wins proved the viability of all-wheel drive racecars, and the Audi name became associated with advances in automotive technology.

In 1985, with the Auto Union and NSU brands effectively dead, the company's official name was now shortened to simply Audi AG.

In 1986, as the Passat-based Audi 80 was beginning to develop a kind of "grandfather's car" image, the type 89 was introduced. This completely new development sold extremely well. However, its modern and dynamic exterior belied the low performance of its base engine, and its base package was quite spartan (even the passenger-side mirror was an option.) In 1987, Audi put forward a new and very elegant Audi 90, which had a much superior set of standard features. In the early 1990s, sales began to slump for the Audi 80 series, and some basic construction problems started to surface.

Audi R8 front

Audi R8

In the early part of the 21st century, Audi set forth on a German racetrack to claim and maintain several World Records, such as Top Speed Endurance. This effort was in-line with the company's heritage from the 1930s racing era Silver Arrows.

Through the early 1990s, Audi began to shift its target market upscale to compete against German automakers Mercedes-Benz and BMW. This began with the release of the Audi V8 in 1990. It was essentially a new engine fitted to the Audi 100/200, but with noticeable bodywork differences. Most obvious was the new grille that was now incorporated in the bonnet.

By 1991, Audi had the 4 cylinder Audi 80, the 5 cylinder Audi 90 and Audi 100, the turbocharged Audi 200 and the Audi V8. There was also a coupe version of the 80/90 with both 4 and 5 cylinder engines.

Although the five cylinder engine was a successful and robust powerplant, it was still a little too different for the target market. With the introduction of an all-new Audi 100 in 1992, Audi introduced a 2.8L V6 engine. This engine was also fitted to a face-lifted Audi 80 (all 80 and 90 models were now badged 80 except for the USA), giving this model a choice of 4, 5, and 6-cylinder engines, in Saloon, Coupé and Cabriolet body styles.

The 5-cylinder was soon dropped as a major engine choice; however, a turbocharged 230 hp (169 kW) version remained. The engine, initially fitted to the 200 quattro 20V of 1991, was a derivative of the engine fitted to the Sport Quattro. It was fitted to the Audi Coupé, and named the S2 and also to the Audi 100 body, and named the S4. These two models were the beginning of the mass-produced S series of performance cars.

Unintended AccelerationEdit

Sales fell after a series of recalls from 1982-1987 of Audi 5000 models[23] associated with reported incidents of sudden unintended acceleration linked to six deaths and 700 accidents.[23] At the time, NHTSA was investigating 50 car models from 20 manufacturers for sudden surges of power.[24]

A 60 Minutes report aired 23 November 1986,[25] featuring interviews with six people who had sued Audi after reporting unintended acceleration, showing an Audi 5000 ostensibly suffering a problem when the brake pedal was pushed.[26][27] Subsequent investigation revealed that 60 Minutes had engineered the failure — fitting a canister of compressed air on the passenger-side floor, linked via a hose to a hole drilled into the transmission.[25]

Audi contended, prior to findings by outside investigators,[24] that the problems were caused by driver error, specifically pedal misapplication.[24] Subsequently, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) concluded that the majority of unintended acceleration cases, including all the ones that prompted the 60 Minutes report, were caused by driver error such as confusion of pedals.[28] CBS did not acknowledge the test results of involved government agencies, but did acknowledge the similar results of another study.[26]

With the series of recall campaigns, Audi made several modifications; the first adjusted the distance between the brake and accelerator pedal on automatic-transmission models.[23] Later repairs, of 250,000 cars dating back to 1978, added a device requiring the driver to press the brake pedal before shifting out of park.[23] A legacy of the Audi 5000 and other reported cased of sudden unintended acceleration are intricate gear stick patterns and brake interlock mechanisms to prevent inadvertent shifting into forward or reverse.

Audi's U.S. sales, which had reached 74,061 in 1985, dropped to 12,283 in 1991 and remained level for three years.[23] — with resale values falling dramatically.[29] Audi subsequently offered increased warranty protection [29] and renamed the affected models — with the 5000 becoming the 100 and 200 in 1989[24] — and only reached the same sales levels again by model year 2000.[23]

A 2010 BusinessWeek article — outlining possible parallels between Audi's experience and 2009–2010 Toyota vehicle recalls — noted a class-action lawsuit filed in 1987 by about 7,500 Audi 5000-model owners remains unsettled and is currently being contested in county court in Chicago after appeals at the Illinois state and U.S. federal levels.[23]

Audi AG todayEdit

Audi aurangabad

Audi plant in Aurangabad, India

Audi's sales grew strongly in the 2000s, with deliveries to customers increasing from 653,000 in 2000 to 1,003,000 in 2008. The largest sales increases came from Eastern Europe (+19.3%), Africa (+17.2%) and the Middle East (+58.5%). China in particular has become a key market, representing 108,000 out of 705,000 cars delivered in the first three quarters of 2009. One factor for its popularity is China is that Audis have become the car of choice for purchase by the Chinese government for officials, and purchases by the government are responsible for 20% of its sales in China.[30] As of late 2009, Audi's operating profit of €1.17-billion ($1.85-billion) made it the biggest contributor to parent Volkswagen Group's nine-month operating profit of €1.5-billion, while the other marques in Group such as Bentley and Seat had suffered considerable losses.[31]

Audi has 6 manufacturing plants around the world: Ingolstadt, Germany since 1969, Neckarsulm, Germany since 1969, Györ, Hungary, Changchun, China since 1995, Brussels, Belgium since 2007, Aurangabad, India since 2006.[32]

Joint VentureEdit

FAW-VolkswagenEdit

Main article: FAW-Volkswagen

Audi has a joint venture in China called FAW-Volkswagen, of which it owns 10%. Audi's parent company, Volkswagen AG, holds 20%, Volkswagen Group China owns 10%, and First Automobile Works (FAW) holds the remaining 60%. Various Audi models are built in China.

TechnologyEdit

BodyshellsEdit

Audi produces 100% galvanised cars to prevent corrosion,[33] and was the first mass-market vehicle to do so, following introduction of the process by Porsche, c.1975. Along with other precautionary measures, the full-body zinc coating has proved to be very effective in preventing rust. The body's resulting durability even surpassed Audi's own expectations, causing the manufacturer to extend its original 10-year warranty against corrosion perforation to currently 12 years (except for aluminium bodies which don't rust).[34]

An all-aluminium car was brought forward by Audi, and in 1994 the Audi A8 was launched, which introduced aluminium space frame technology (called Audi Space Frame). Audi introduced a new series of vehicles in the mid-nineties and continues to new technology and high performance. Prior to that effort, Audi used examples of the Type 44 chassis fabricated out of aluminium as test-beds for the technique.

Drive layoutEdit

In all its post Volkswagen-era models, Audi has firmly refused to adopt the traditional rear-wheel drive layout favored by its two arch rivals Mercedes-Benz and BMW, favoring either front-wheel drive or all wheel drive. The majority of Audi's lineup in the United States features all wheel drive standard on most of its expensive vehicles (only the entry-level trims of the A4 and A6 are available with front-wheel drive), in contrast to Mercedes-Benz and BMW whose lineup treats all-wheel drive as an option (BMW only started offering all-wheel drive on its 7 Series starting in the 2010 model year, while the Audi A8 has had all-wheel drive available/standard since the 1990s). Regarding high-performance variants, Audi S and RS models have always had all-wheel drive, unlike their direct rivals from BMW M and Mercedes-AMG which are rear-wheel drive only.

For most of its lineup (excluding the less expensive A3 and A1), Audi has not adopted the transverse engine layout which is found in economy cars, since that would limit the type and power of engines that can be installed. In order to be able to mount powerful engines (such as a V8 engine in the Audi S4 and Audi RS4), Audi has usually engineered its more expensive cars with a longitudinally front mounted engine, in an "overhung" position, over the front wheels in front of the axle line. While this allows for the easy adoption of all wheel drive, it goes against the ideal 50:50 weight distribution (as do all front wheel drive cars).

Audi has recently applied the quattro badge to models such as the A3 and TT which do not use the Torsen-based system as in prior years, with a mechanical centre differential, but with the Swedish Haldex Traction electro-mechanical clutch AWD system.

Space frameEdit

Replacing the Audi V8 in 1994, the Audi A8 debuted with an aluminum space frame (the "Audi Space Frame" or ASF) which saves weight and improves torsion rigidity compared to a conventional steel frame. The weight reduction is somewhat offset by the quattro four-wheel drive system which is standard in most markets. Nonetheless, the A8 is usually the lightest all-wheel drive car in the full-size luxury segment, also having best-in-class fuel economy.[35] The disadvantage of the aluminum frame is that it is very expensive to repair and requires a specialized aluminum bodyshop.[36]

The Audi A2, Audi TT and Audi R8 also use Audi Space Frame designs.

Audi A2Edit

The Audi A2 was a futuristic super mini born from the Al2 concept. It featured many features that gave Audi the cutting edge technology that it had lacked for years, like the aluminium space frame which was a first in production car design. In the A2 Audi further expanded their TDI technology through the use of frugal three cylinder engines. The A2 was extremely aerodynamic and was designed around a wind tunnel. The Audi A2 was criticised for its high price and was never really a sales success but it planted Audi as a cutting edge manufacturer. The model, a Mercedes-Benz A-Class competitor, sold relatively well in Europe. However, the A2 was discontinued in 2005 and Audi decided not to develop an immediate replacement.

Audi A4Edit

The next major model change came in 1995 when the Audi A4 replaced the Audi 80. The new nomenclature scheme was applied to the Audi 100 to become the Audi A6 (with a minor facelift). This also meant the S4 became the S6 and a new S4 was introduced in the A4 body. The S2 was discontinued. The Audi Cabriolet continued on (based on the Audi 80 platform) until 1999, gaining the engine upgrades along the way. A new A3 hatchback model (sharing the Volkswagen Golf Mk4's platform) was introduced to the range in 1996, and the radical Audi TT coupé and roadster were debuted in 1998 based on the same underpinnings.

The engines available throughout the range were now a 1.4L, 1.6L and 1.8L 4 cylinder, 1.8L 4-cylinder turbo, 2.6L and 2.8L V6, 2.2L turbo-charged 5 cylinder and the 4.2L V8 engine. The V6s were replaced by new 2.4L and 2.8L 30V V6s in 1998, with marked improvement in power, torque and smoothness. Further engines were added along the way, including a 3.7L V8 and 6.0L W12 engine for the A8.

Direct-Shift GearboxEdit

At the turn of the century, Volkswagen introduced the Direct-Shift Gearbox (DSG), a type of dual clutch transmission. It is an automated semi-automatic transmission, drivable like a conventional automatic transmission. Based on the gearbox found in the Group B S1, the system includes dual electrohydraulically controlled clutches instead of a torque converter. This is implemented in some VW Golfs, Audi A3 and TT models where DSG is called S-tronic.

Fuel Stratified InjectionEdit

New models of the A3, A4, A6 and A8 have been introduced, with the aging 1.8 litre engine now having been replaced by new Fuel Stratified Injection (FSI) engines. Nearly every petroleum burning model in the range now incorporates this fuel-saving technology, including the following:

2007 Audi R8 Engine

V8 FSI engine.

Electric technologyEdit

Audi is planning an alliance with the Japanese electronic giant Sanyo to develop a pilot hybrid electric project for the Volkswagen Group. The alliance could result in Sanyo batteries and other electronic components being used in future models of the Volkswagen Group.[37]

Hybrid electric vehicles includes:

Fully electric vehicles:

  • Audi e-tron Concept Supercar[40]

LED daytime running lightsEdit

LED DaytimeRunningLights

The DRL in a Audi A4 B8

Beginning in 2006, Audi has implemented white LED technology as daytime running lights in their products. The distinctive shape of the DRLs has become a trademark of sorts. LEDs were first introduced on the Audi S6, and have since spread throughout the entire model range.

Multi Media InterfaceEdit

Audi has recently started offering a computerised control system for its cars, called Multi Media Interface (MMI). This came amid criticism of BMW's iDrive control. It is essentially a rotating control knob and 'segment' buttons - designed to control all in-car entertainment devices (radio, CD changer, iPod, TV tuner), satellite navigation, heating and ventilation, and other car controls with a screen. MMI was widely reported to be a considerable improvement on BMW's iDrive, although BMW has since made their iDrive more user-friendly.

MMI has been generally well-received, as it requires less menu-surfing with its segment buttons around a central knob, along with 'main function' direct access buttons - with shortcuts to the radio or phone functions. The screen, either colour or monochrome, is mounted on the upright dashboard, and on the A4 (new), A5, A6, A8, and Q7, the controls are mounted horizontally.

An "MMI-like" system is also available on the A3, TT, A4 (B7), and R8 models - when equipped with the Audi Navigation System Plus (RNS-E) satellite navigation system.

EnginesEdit

In the 1980s, Audi, along with Volvo, was the champion of the inline 5 cylinder, 2.1/2.2 L engine as a longer-lasting alternative to more traditional 6 cylinder engines. This engine was used not only in production cars but also in their race cars. The 2.1 L inline 5 cylinder engine was used as a base for the rally cars in the 1980s, providing well over 400 horsepower (298 kW) after modification. Before 1990, there were engines produced with a displacement between 2.0 L and 2.3 L. This range of engine capacity allowed for both fuel economy and power.

Volkswagen W12

Volkswagen Group W12 engine from the Volkswagen Phaeton W12

For the ultra-luxury version of its Audi A8 fullsize luxury flagship sedan, the Audi A8L W12, Audi uses the Volkswagen Group W12 engine instead of the conventional V12 engine favored by rivals Mercedes-Benz and BMW. The W12 engine configuration (also known as a "WR12") is created by forming two imaginary narrow-angle 15° VR6 engines at an angle of 72°, and the narrow angle of each set of cylinders allows just two overhead camshafts to drive each pair of banks, so just four are needed in total.[41] The advantage of the W12 engine is its compact packaging, allowing Audi to build a 12-cylinder sedan with all-wheel drive, whereas a conventional V12 engine could only have a rear-wheel drive configuration as it would have no space in the engine bay for a differential and other components required to power the front wheels. In fact, the 6.0L W12 in the Audi A8L W12 is actually a bit smaller by overall dimensions than the 4.2L V8 that powers the Audi A8 4.2 variants. [42] The 2011 Audi A8 debuted a revised 6.3 liter version of the W12 (WR12) engine with 500 PS.

Current model range enginesEdit

Petrol engines:

Diesel Engines:

Current model rangeEdit

Audi A1 Audi A3 Audi A4 Audi A5 Audi A6 Audi A7 Audi A8 Audi TT Audi R8 Road Car Audi Q5 Audi Q7
Supermini Small Family Car Compact Executive Car Compact Executive Car Executive Car Executive Car Full-size Luxury Car Compact Sports Car Sports Car Compact Crossover SUV Crossover SUV
  • 3-door Hatchback
  • 3-door Hatchback
  • 5-door Sportback
  • 2-door Cabriolet
  • 4-door Saloon
  • 5-door Avant
  • 2-door Coupé
  • 2-door Cabriolet
  • 5-door Saloon
  • Saloon
  • Avant
  • Allroad Quattro
  • 5-door Fastback
  • 4-door Saloon
  • Coupé
  • Roadster
  • Coupé
  • Spyder
  • GT
  • 5-door Avant
  • 5-door SUV
Audi A1 1.4 T
Audi A3 front 20071004
Audi A4 B8 front 20080414
Audi A5 front 20080129
Audi-A6-3.2-1
Audi A7 -- 2011 DC
2011 Audi A8 -- 2011 DC
Audi TT Coupe b
Audi R8
Audi Q5 front 20090404
Audi Q7 1

S (Sport) modelsEdit

Audi S3 Audi S4 Audi S5 Audi TTS
Small Family Car Compact Executive Car Compact Executive Car Compact Sports Car
  • 3-door Hatchback
  • 5-door Hatchback
  • 5-door Sportback
  • 4-door Saloon
  • 5-door Avant
  • Coupé
  • Sportback
  • Cabriolet
  • Coupé
  • Roadster
AudiS3 8P front
2009-2010 Audi S4 (B8) sedan 01
AudiS five
Audi TT S -- 2011 DC

RS (RennSport/Racing Sport) modelsEdit

Audi RS3 Audi RS5 Audi TT RS
Small Family Car Compact Executive Car Compact Sports Car
  • Sportback
  • Coupé
  • Coupé
  • Roadster
Img20444-fujifinepix
Audi RS5 front

Discontinued modelsEdit

Audi 100/200 Audi 80/90 Audi 50 Audi 920 Audi A2 Audi Coupé Audi F103 Audi Front UW 220 Audi Front UW 225 Audi Quattro Audi R10 TDI Audi RS2 Avant
Executive Car Compact Executive Car Supermini Executive Car Compact MPV Coupé Compact Executive Car Executive Car Executive Car Coupé Racing Car Compact executive car
  • 5-door Hatchback
  • 4-door Saloon
  • 2-door Coupé
  • 2-door Saloon
  • 2-door Saloon
  • 4-door Saloon
  • 5-door Avant
  • 3-door Hatchback
  • 2-door Saloon
  • 2-door Cabriolet
  • 5-door Hatchback
  • 2-door Coupé
  • 2-door Saloon
  • 4-door Saloon
  • 3-door Avant
  • 4-door Sport Saloon
  • 4-door Limousine
  • 2-door Cabriolet
  • 2-door Roadster
  • 4-door Sport Saloon
  • 4-door Limousine
  • 2-door Cabriolet
  • 2-door Roadster
  • 2-door Coupé
  • Race Car
  • Stealth Edition
  • 5-door Avant
1968–1994
1966-1996
1974-1978
1938-1940
1999-2005
1980-1988
1965-1972
1933–1934
1935–1938
1980-1991
1994-1995
Audi 100 C3, BJ 1987
Audi B4 Cabriolet front 20071002
Audi 50
MHV Audi 920 01
Audia21991
Audi-GT-front
Audi 75 in Rothenburg
Audi Front UW 220 exhibited at Autostadt in Wolfsburg
Audi Front 225
Audi Quattro vl black
Audi R10 2007
Audi RS2
Audi RS4 Audi RS6 Audi Type C Audi V8
Compact Executive Car Executive Car Executive Car Full-Size Luxury Car
  • 4-door Saloon
  • 5-door Avant
  • 2-door Cabriolet
  • 5-door Avant
  • 4-door Saloon
  • 2-door
  • 4-door Saloon
2000-2008
2002-2010
1911-1925
1988-1993
Audi rs4
Audi RS6 sedan typ4F world premiere front
Audi Type C 14 35 hp
Audi V8Quattro

MotorsportsEdit

Audi has competed in numerous forms of motorsports. Audi's rich tradition in motorsport began with their former company Auto Union in the 1930s. In the 1990s, Audi dominated the Touring and Super Touring categories of motor racing after success in circuit racing in North America.

RallyingEdit

Portugal 84 Audi Quattro A2

Walter Röhrl with his Quattro A2 during the 1984 Rally Portugal.

In 1980, Audi released the Quattro, a four-wheel drive (4WD) turbocharged car that went on to win rallies and races worldwide. It is considered one of the most significant rally cars of all time, because it was one of the first to take advantage of the then-recently changed rules which allowed the use of four-wheel drive in competition racing. Many critics doubted the viability of four-wheel drive racers, thinking them to be too heavy and complex, yet the Quattro was to become a successful car. Leading its first rally it went off the road, however the rally world had been served notice 4WD was the future. The Quattro went on to achieve much success in the World Rally Championship. It won the 1983 [Hannu Mikkola) and the 1984 (Stig Blomqvist) drivers' titles,[43] and brought Audi the manufacturers' title in 1982 and 1984.[44]

Audi Quattro - 2007 Rallye Deutschland (cropped)

Audi Quattro S1 driven at the 2007 Rallye Deutschland

In 1984, Audi launched the short-wheelbase Sport Quattro which dominated rally races in Monte Carlo and Sweden, with Audi taking all podium places, but succumbed to problems further into WRC contention. In 1985, after another season mired in mediocre finishes, Walter Röhrl finished the season in his Sport Quattro S1, and helped place Audi second in the manufacturers' points. Audi also received rally honours in the Hong Kong to Beijing rally in that same year. Michèle Mouton, the only female driver to win a round of the World Rally Championship and a driver for Audi, took the Sport Quattro S1, now simply called the "S1", and raced in the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb. The climb race pits a driver and car to drive up a 4,302 metre high mountain in Colorado and in 1985, Michèle Mouton set a new record of 11:25.39, and being the first woman to set a Pikes Peak record. In 1986, Audi formally left international rally racing following an accident in Portugal involving driver Joaquim Santos in his Ford RS200. Santos swerved to avoid hitting spectators in the road, and left the track into the crowd of spectators on the side, killing three and injuring 30. Bobby Unser used an Audi in that same year to claim a new record for the Pikes Peak Hill Climb at 11:09.22.

In 1987, Walter Röhrl claimed the title for Audi setting a new Pikes Peak International Hill Climb record of 10:47.85 in his Audi S1, which he had retired from the WRC two years earlier. The Audi S1 employed Audi's time-tested inline five cylinder turbocharged engine, with the final version generating 441 kW (600 PS/591 bhp).[45] The engine was mated to a six-speed gearbox and ran on Audi's famous four-wheel drive system. All of Audi's top drivers drove this car; Hannu Mikkola, Stig Blomqvist, Walter Röhrl and Michèle Mouton. This Audi S1 started the range of Audi 'S' cars, which now represents an increased level of sports-performance equipment within the mainstream Audi model range.

In the USAEdit

As Audi moved away from rallying and into circuit racing, they chose to move first into America with the Trans-Am in 1988.

In 1989, Audi moved to International Motor Sports Association (IMSA) GTO with the Audi 90, however as they avoided the two major endurance events (Daytona and Sebring) despite winning on a regular basis, they would lose out on the title.

Touring carsEdit

In 1990, having completed their objective to market cars in North America, Audi returned to Europe, turning first to the Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft (DTM) series with the Audi V8, and then in 1993, being unwilling to build cars for the new formula, they turned their attention to the fast growing Super Touring series, which are a series of national championships. Audi first entered in the French Supertourisme and Italian Superturismo. In the following year, Audi would switch to the German Super Tourenwagen Cup (known as STW), and then to British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) the year after that.

The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), having difficulty regulating the quattro four wheel drive system, and the impact it had on the competitors, would eventually ban all four wheel drive cars from competing in 1998, but by then, Audi switched all their works efforts to sports car racing.

By 2000, Audi would still compete in the US with their RS4 for the SCCA Speed World GT Challenge, through dealer/team Champion Racing competing against Corvettes, Vipers, and smaller BMWs (where it is one of the few series to permit 4WD cars). In 2003, Champion Racing entered an RS6. Once again, the quattro four wheel drive was superior, and Champion Audi won the championship. They returned in 2004 to defend their title, but a newcomer, Cadillac with the new Omega Chassis CTS-V, gave them a run for their money. After four victories in a row, the Audis were sanctioned with several negative changes that deeply affected the car's performance. Namely, added ballast weights, and Champion Audi deciding to go with different tyres, and reducing the boost pressure of the turbocharger.

In 2004, after years of competing with the TT-R in the revitalised DTM series, with privateer team Abt Racing/Christian Abt taking the 2002 title with Laurent Aïello, Audi returned as a full factory effort to touring car racing by entering two factory supported Joest Racing A4 DTM cars.

Sports car racingEdit

Audi R10 1

Audi R10 TDI

Starting in 1999, Audi built the Audi R8R (open-cockpit 'roadster' prototype) and the Audi R8C (closed-cockpit 'coupé' GT-prototype) to compete in sports car racing, including the Le Mans Prototype LMP900 class at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. For the 2000 season, Audi focussed mainly on the new Audi R8, due to favourable rules for open-cockpit prototypes. However, most of the competitors (such as BMW, Toyota, Mercedes and Nissan) retired at the end of 1999. The factory-supported Joest Racing team won at Le Mans three times in a row with the Audi R8 (2000–2002), as well as winning every race in the American Le Mans Series in its first year. Audi also sold the car to customer teams such as Champion Racing.

In 2003, two Bentley Speed 8s, with engines designed by Audi, and driven by Joest drivers loaned to the fellow Volkswagen Group company, competed in the GTP class, and finished the race in the top two positions, while the Champion Racing R8 finished third overall, and first in the LMP900 class. Audi returned to the winner's podium at the 2004 race, with the top three finishers all driving R8s: Audi Sport Japan Team Goh finished first, Audi Sport UK Veloqx second, and Champion Racing third.

At the 2005 24 Hours of Le Mans, Champion Racing entered two R8s, along with an R8 from the Audi PlayStation Team Oreca. The R8s (which were built to old LMP900 regulations) received a narrower air inlet restrictor, reducing power, and an additional 50 kg (110 lb) of weight compared to the newer LMP1 chassis. On average, the R8s were about 2–3 seconds off pace compared to the Pescarolo–Judd. But with a team of excellent drivers and experience, both Champion R8s were able to take first and third, while the ORECA team took fourth. The Champion team was also the first American team to win Le Mans since the Gulf Ford GT's in 1967. This also ends the long era of the R8; however, its replacement for 2006, called the Audi R10 TDI, was unveiled on 13 December 2005.

The R10 TDI employs many new features, its most obvious was the twin-turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. Its first race was the 2006 12 Hours of Sebring as a race-test for the 2006 24 Hours of Le Mans, which it later went on to win. Audi has been on the forefront of sports car racing, claiming a historic win in the first ever diesel sports car at 12 Hours of Sebring (the car was developed with a Diesel engine due to ACO regolamentation that favor diesel engine). As well as winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 2006 making history, the R10 TDI has also shown its capabilities by beating the Peugeot 908 HDi FAP in 2007, and beating Peugeot again in 2008, (however Peugeot won the 24h in 2009) and, in a podium clean-sweep by proving its reliability throughout the race (compared to all four 908 entries retired before the end of the race) while breaking a new distance record (set way back by the Porsche 917K of Martini Racing in 1971}, in 2010 with the R15 TDI Plus.[46]

MarketingEdit

Audi Logo

The old logo used by Audi until 2009

LogosEdit

The Audi emblem is four overlapping rings that represent the four marques of Auto Union. The Audi emblem symbolises the amalgamation of Audi with DKW, Horch and Wanderer: the first ring from the left represents Audi, the second represents DKW, third is Horch, and the fourth and last ring Wanderer.[47][48] Its similarity to the Olympic rings caused the International Olympic Committee to sue Audi in Rochester, Minnesota small claims Court in 1995.[49]

As part of Audi's centennial celebration in 2009, the company updated the logo, changing the font to left-aligned Audi Type, and altering the shading for the overlapping rings.[50]

The logo was designed by Rayan Abdullah.[51]

SlogansEdit

Audi's corporate tagline is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Progress through Technology".[52] The German-language tagline is used in many European countries, including the United Kingdom, and in other markets, such as Latin America, Oceania and parts of Asia including Japan. A few years ago, the North American tagline was "Innovation through technology", but in Canada the German tagline Vorsprung durch Technik was used in advertising. More recently, however, Audi has updated the tagline to "Truth in Engineering" in the U.S.[53]

SponsorshipsEdit

Audi Centre Sydney, Zetland, New South Wales (2010-07-10) 02

Audi Centre Sydney, Zetland, New South Wales, Australia.

Audi is a strong partner of different kinds of sports. In association football, long partnerships exist between Audi and various clubs like Manchester United, FC Bayern Munich, Real Madrid CF, FC Barcelona, AC Milan and Ajax Amsterdam. Audi also sponsors winter sports: The Audi FIS Alpine Ski World Cup is named after the company. Additionally, Audi supports the German Ski Association (DSV) as well as the alpine skiing national teams of Switzerland, Sweden, Finland, France, Liechtenstein, Italy, Austria and the US. For almost two decades Audi fosters golf sport: for example with the Audi quattro Cup and the HypoVereinsbank Ladies German Open presented by Audi. In sailing, Audi is engaged in the Medcup regatta and supports the team Luna Rossa during the Louis Vuitton Pacific Series and also is the primary sponsor of the Melges 20 sailboat. Further, Audi sponsors the regional teams ERC Ingolstadt (hockey) and FC Ingolstadt 04 (soccer).[54] In 2009, the year of Audis 100th anniversary, the company organises the Audi Cup for the first time. In a two-day-tournament, the teams of FC Bayern Munich, AC Milan, Manchester United F.C. and CA Boca Juniors will compete against each other.[55] Audi also sponsor the New York Yankees as well. In October 2010 they agreed to a three sponsorship year-deal with Everton.[56]

Multitronic campaignEdit

In 2001, Audi promoted the new multitronic continuously variable transmission with television commercials throughout Europe, featuring an impersonator of musician and actor Elvis Presley.[57][58] A prototypical dashboard figure - later named "Wackel-Elvis" ("Wobble Elvis" or "Wobbly Elvis") - appeared in the commercials to demonstrate the smooth ride in an Audi equipped with the multitronic transmission. The dashboard figure was originally intended for use in the commercials only, but after they aired the demand for Wackel-Elvis fans grew among fans and the figure was mass produced in China and marketed by Audi in their factory outlet store.[59]

TypographyEdit

Audi Sans (based on Univers Extended) was originally created in 1997 by Ole Schäfer for MetaDesign.

MetaDesign was later commissioned for a new corporate typeface called Audi Type, designed by Paul van der Laan and Pieter van Rosmalen of Bold Monday. The font began to appear in Audi's 2009 products and marketing materials.[60]


Audi TDI Edit

As part of Audi's attempt to promote its Diesel technology in 2009, the company began Audi Mileage Marathon. The driving tour featured a fleet of 23 Audi TDI vehicles from 4 models (Audi Q7 3.0 TDI, Audi Q5 3.0 TDI, Audi A4 3.0 TDI, Audi A3 Sportback 2.0 TDI with S tronic transmission) travelling across the American continent from New York to Los Angeles, passing major cities like Chicago, Dallas and Las Vegas during the 13 daily stages, as well as natural wonders including the Rocky Mountains, Death Valley and the Grand Canyon.[61]

Audi e-tronEdit

The next phase of technology Audi is developing is the e-tron electric drive powertrain system. They have shown several concept cars as of March 2010, each with different levels of size and performance. The original e-tron concept shown at the 2009 Frankfurt motor show is based on the platform of the R8 and has been scheduled for limited production. Power is provided by electric motors at all four wheels. The second concept was shown at the 2010 Detroit Motor Show. Power is provided by two electric motors at the rear axle. This concept is also considered to be the direction for a future mid-engined gas powered 2 seat performance coupe. The Audi A1 e-tron concept, based on the Audi A1 production model, is a hybrid vehicle with a range extending Wankel rotary engine to provide power after the initial charge of the battery is depleted. It is the only concept of the three to have range extending capability. The car is powered through the front wheels, always using electric power.

ReferencesEdit

Smallwikipedialogo This page uses some content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Audi. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Tractor & Construction Plant Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons by Attribution License and/or GNU Free Documentation License. Please check page history for when the original article was copied to Wikia

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