Bought out by Chrysler |
(March 9, 1987), renamed Eagle
|Founded||January 14, 1954 |
|Headquarters||Southfield, Michigan, USA|
George W. Mason|
George W. Romney
Roy D. Chapin Jr.
Richard A. Teague
Buses and delivery vehicles
Sport utility vehicles
Major home appliances
Lawn care products
American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company. At the time, it was the largest corporate merger in U.S. history.
George W. Mason was the architect of the merger to reap benefits from the strengths of the two firms to battle the much larger "Big Three" automakers (General Motors, Ford and Chrysler). Within a year George W. Romney took over, reorganized the company and focused the future of AMC on a new small car line. By the end of 1957 the original Nash and Hudson brands were completely phased out. The company struggled at first, but sales of the Rambler took off. Its cars were frequent winners in Mobil Economy Runs and Ramblers became America's third most popular car during the early 1960s. In the mid-1960s, under the leadership of Roy Abernethy, focused AMC on larger and more profitable car lines to move away from the Rambler's perceived "negative" compact car image. However, AMC's deteriorating financial and market position put Roy D. Chapin, Jr. in charge to revitalize the company. Prices and costs were cut while new and more "sporty" automobiles were introduced. AMC became known for their new, popular muscle car offerings beginning in 1968 with the Javelin and AMX. Designer Richard A. Teague developed many vehicles from common stampings, resulting in cost savings for a company that often lacked operating capital.
AMC purchased Kaiser's Jeep utility vehicle operations in 1970 as a complement to the company's existing passenger car business. Beginning in the early 1970s, they moved towards an all-new design of compact cars based on the Hornet, including the Hornet itself and the Gremlin. Other new models in the 1970s included the radically styled Matador and Pacer. However, as costs mounted, AMC reduced their overall line and began to focus almost exclusively on their Hornet-based offerings and Jeep line. By the late-1970s new lines, such as the Spirit, and Concord, were variations of the Hornet's platform. The company continued to innovate existing designs introducing in 1979 the 4-wheel-drive AMC Eagle. The Eagle is widely recognized as one of the first true crossovers.
Beginning in 1980, AMC partnered with France's Renault in an effort to keep their expensive manufacturing operations open, obtain much-needed capital, and as a source for vehicles in the increasingly popular subcompact category. After 1983, Renault purchased a majority controlling interest in AMC, ended production of all AMC cars (except for the Eagle) and focused entirely on promoting the Alliance, a Renault-based subcompact. In spite of further new vehicle development, including the Medallion and an early, Teague designed version of the Premier, Renault sold AMC to Chrysler in 1987. Both AMC and Renault brands ceased in the U.S. The Jeep/Eagle division of Chrysler Corporation was formed after Chrysler's 1987 buyout, with Jeep and Eagle models (the Medallion and the redesigned Premier) marketed primarily by former AMC dealers.
In January 1954, Nash-Kelvinator Corporation began acquisition of the Hudson Motor Car Company (in what was called a merger) to form American Motors. The deal was a straight stock transfer (three shares of Hudson listed at 11⅛, for two shares of AMC and one share of Nash-Kelvinator listed at 17⅜, for one share of AMC) and finalized in the spring of 1954, forming the fourth-biggest auto company in the U.S. with assets of US$355 million (US$2,900,857,143 in 2020 dollars) and more than $100 million inorking capital]]. The new company retained Hudson CEO A.E. Barit as a consultant and he took a seat on the Board of Directors. Nash's George W. Mason became President and CEO.
Mason, the architect of the merger, believed that the survival of America's remaining independent automakers depended on their joining in one multibrand company capable of challenging the "Big Three" — General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler — as an equal. The "frantic 1953-54 Ford/GM price war" had a devastating impact on the remaining "independent" automakers. The reasons for the merger between Nash and Hudson included helping cut costs and strengthen their sales organizations to meet the intense competition expected from autos' Big Three.
One quick result from the merger was the doubling up with Nash on purchasing and production allowing Hudson to cut prices an average of $155 on the Wasp line, up to $204 on the more expensive Hornet models. After the merger, AMC had its first profitable quarter during second three months in 1955, earning $1,592,307 (US$13,060,094 in 2020 dollars) compared to a loss of $3,848,667 (US$31,449,107 in 2020 dollars) during the same period in the previous year. Mason also entered into informal discussions with James J. Nance of Packard to outline his strategic vision. Interim plans were made for AMC to buy Packard Ultramatic automatic transmissions and Packard V8 engines for certain AMC products.
In 1954, Packard acquired Studebaker. The new Studebaker-Packard Corporation (S-P) made the new 320 cu in (5.2 L) Packard V8 engine and Packard's Ultramatic automatic transmission available to AMC for its Nash Ambassador and Hudson Hornet models. When Mason died in 1954, George W. Romney succeeded him. Ironically, Romney had once been offered Nance's job. In 1948, Romney received offers from Packard for the post of chief operating officer and from Nash for the number two position in the company. Although the Packard offer would have paid more, Romney decided to work under Mason because he thought Nash had a brighter future. S-P President James Nance refused to consider merging with AMC unless he could take the top command position (Mason and Nance were former competitors as heads of the Kelvinator and Hotpoint appliance companies respectively), and a week after Mason's death Romney announced, "there are no mergers under way either directly or indirectly." Romney agreed with Mason's commitment to buy S-P products. Mason and Nance had agreed that in return S-P would endeavor to purchase parts from American Motors, but S-P did not do so. As the Packard engines and transmissions were comparatively expensive, AMC began development of its own V8 engine. In mid-1956, the 352 cu in (5.8 L) Packard V8 and TwinUltramatic transmission was phased out and replaced by AMC's new V8 engine, as well as GM's Hydra-Matic and Borg-Warner transmissions.
By 1964, Studebaker production in the United States had ended, and its Canadian operations ceased in 1966. The "Big Three", plus the smaller AMC, Kaiser Jeep, International Harvester, Avanti, and Checker companies were the remaining North American auto manufacturers.
Product development in the 1950sEdit
American Motors combined the Nash and the Hudson product lines under a common manufacturing strategy in 1955, with the production of both Nashes and Hudsons combined, while retaining the separately branded established dealer networks. The Hudsons were redesigned to bring them in harmony with Nash body styles.
The fast-selling Rambler model was sold as both a Nash and a Hudson in 1955 and 1956. These badge-engineered Ramblers, along with similar Metropolitans, were identical save for hubcaps, nameplates, and other minor trim details.
The pre-existing full-size Nash product line was continued and the Nash Statesman and Ambassador were restyled as the "new" Hudson Wasp and Hudson Hornet. Although the cars shared the same body shell, they were at least as different from one another as Chevrolet and Pontiac. Hudsons and Nashes each used their own engines as they had previously: the Hudson Hornet continued to offer the 308 cu in (5.0 L) I6 that had powered the (NASCAR) champion during the early 1950s; the Wasp now used the former engine of the Hudson Jet.
The Nash Ambassador and Statesman continued with overhead- valve and L-head sixes respectively. Hudson and Nash cars had different front suspensions. Trunk lids were interchangeable but other body panels, rear window glass, dash panels and braking systems were different. The Hudson Hornet and Wasp, and their Nash counterparts, had improved ride and visibility; also better fuel economy owing to the lighter unitized Nash body.
For the 1958 model year, the Nash and Hudson brands were dropped. Rambler became a marque in its own right and the mainstay of the company. The slow-selling British-built Nash Metropolitan subcompact continued as a standalone brand until it was dropped after 1962. The prototype 1958 Nash Ambassador / Hudson Hornet, built on a stretched Rambler platform, was renamed at the last minute as "Ambassador by Rambler". To round out the model line AMC reintroduced the old 1955, 100 in (2,540 mm) wheelbase Nash Rambler as the new Rambler American with only a few modifications. This gave Rambler a compact lineup with 100 in (2,500 mm) American, 108 in (2,743 mm) Rambler Six and Rebel V8, as well as the 117 in (2,972 mm) Ambassador wheelbase vehicles.
Sales of Ramblers soared in the late 1950s in part because American Motors had sponsored the hugely popular Disneyland television show and was also an exhibitor at the Disneyland theme park in Anaheim, California. George Romney himself pitched the Rambler product in the television commercials.
While the "Big Three" introduced ever-larger cars, AMC followed a "dinosaur-fighter" strategy. George W. Romney's leadership focused the company on the compact car, a fuel-efficient vehicle 20 years before there was a real need for them. This gave Romney a high profile in the media. Two core strategic factors came into play: (1) the use of shared components in AMC products and (2) a refusal to participate in the Big Three's restyling race. This cost-control policy helped Rambler develop a reputation as solid economy cars. Company officials were confident in the changing market and in 1959 announced a $10 million (US$75,349,370 in 2020 dollars) expansion of its Kenosha complex (to increase annual straight-time capacity from 300,000 to 440,000 cars). A letter to shareholders in 1959 claimed that the introduction of new compact cars by AMC's large domestic competitors (for the 1960 model year) "signals the end of big-car domination in the U.S." and that AMC predicts small-car sales in the U.S. may reach 3 million units by 1963.
American Motors was also beginning to experiment in non-gasoline powered automobiles. On April 1, 1959, AMC and Sonotone Corporation announced a joint research effort to consider producing an electric car that was to be powered by a "self-charging" battery. Sonotone had the technology for making sintered plate nickel-cadmium batteries that can be recharged very rapidly and are lighter than a typical automobile lead-acid battery.
In 1959, AMC hired designer Richard A. Teague who had previously worked for General Motors, Packard, and Chrysler; after Edmund E. Andersonleft the company in 1961, Teague was named principal designer and in 1964, Vice President.
Changing focus in the 1960sEdit
In an effort to stay competitive, American Motors produced a wide range of products during the 1960s, and added innovations long before the "Big Three" introduced them.
Rambler also was an early pioneer in offering an automatic shift indicator sequence (PRN21L, where if one selected "2", the car started in second gear, while "1" started in first gear) which is similar to today's "PRNODSL", made mandatory in 1968, which requires a neutral position between reverse and drive, while General Motors still offered a shift selector that had reverse immediately next to low gear (PNDSLR) well into the 1960s.
In 1964, the Classic was equipped with standard dual reclining front seats nearly a decade before the Big Three offered them as options. Bendix disc brakes were made optional on the Classic in 1965, while the Big Three didn't offer them until 1969 on many models.
In the early part of the decade, sales were strong, thanks in no small part to the company's history of building small cars, which came into vogue in 1961. In both 1960 and 1961, Ramblers ranked in third place among domestic automobile sales, up from third on the strength of small-car sales, even in the face of a lot of new competition. Romney's strategic focus was very successful as reflected in the firm's healthy profits year after year. The company became completely debt-free. The financial success allowed the company to reach an agreement on August 26, 1961 with the United Auto Workers for a profit sharing plan that was new in the automobile industry. Its new three-year labor contract also included generous annual improvement pay increases, as well as automatic cost-of-living raises. However, in 1962, Romney resigned to run for Governor of Michigan. His replacement was Roy Abernethy, AMC's successful sales executive.
Abernethy believed that AMC's reputation of building reliable economical cars could be translated into a new strategy that could follow AMC buyers as they traded up into larger, more expensive vehicles. The first cars bearing his signature were the 1965 models. These were a longer Ambassador series and new convertibles for the larger models. During mid-year a fastback, called the Marlin, was added. Rather than competing directly with Ford's new pony-car, AMC's "family-sized" car emphasized personal-luxury. Abernethy also called for the de-emphasis of the Rambler brand. The 1966 Marlin and Ambassador lost their Rambler nameplates, and were badged as "American Motors" products. The new models shared fewer parts among each other and were more expensive to build.
The continuing quest "in the business world's toughest race — the grinding contest against the Big Three automobile makers" also meant annual styling changes requiring large expenditures. American Motors' management total confidence "that the new 1965 models would stem a bothersome decline" actually began falling behind in share of sales. Moreover, a new line of redesigned cars in the full and mid-sized markets was launched in the fall of 1966. The cars won acclaim for their fluid styling, but Abernethy's ideas did not work as they only confused the firm's core customers. Sales of the new Rebel and Ambassador models dropped after their introduction. There were quality control problems, as well as persistent rumors of the company's demise because of its precarious cash flow.
American Motors did not have its own electric car program as the Big Three, and after some negotiation, a contract was drawn in 1967 with Gulton Industries to develop a new battery based on lithium and a speed controller designed by Victor Wouk. A nickel-cadmium battery powered 1969 Rambler station wagon demonstrated the power systems that according to the scientist was a "wonderful car". This was also the start of other "plug-in"-type experimental AMC vehicles developed with Gulton — the Amitron and the Electron.
Abernethy was ousted from AMC on January 9, 1967 and damage control fell to the new CEO, Roy D. Chapin Jr. (son of Hudson Motors founder Roy D. Chapin). Chapin quickly instituted changes to AMC's offerings and tried to regain market share by focusing on younger demographic markets. Chapin's first decision was to cut the price of the Rambler to within US$200 of the basic Volkswagen Beetle. Innovative marketing ideas included making air conditioning standard on all 1968 Ambassador models (available as a delete option). This made AMC the first U.S. automaker to make air conditioning standard equipment on a line of their cars, beating out even luxury makes such as Lincoln, Imperial, and Cadillac.
The company also introduced exciting entries for the decade's muscle car boom, most notably the AMX; while the Javelin served as the company's entrant into the sporty "pony car" market created by the Ford Mustang. Additional operating cash was derived in 1968 through the sale of Kelvinator Appliance, once one of the firm's core operating units.
The Rambler brand was completely dropped after the 1969 model year in North America, although it continued to be used in several overseas markets as either a model or brand name, with the last use in Mexico in 1983. From 1970, "AMC" was the brand used for all American Motors passenger cars; and all vehicles from that date bore the AMC name and the new corporate logo. However, the names "American Motors" and "AMC" were used interchangeably in corporate literature well into the 1980s. The branding issue was further complicated when the company's Eagle all-wheel drive passenger cars were marketed as the "American Eagle" in the 1980s.
Chapin also expanded American Motors product line in 1970, through the purchase of the Kaiser-Jeep Corporation (formerly Willys-Overland) from Kaiser Industries. This added the iconic Jeep brand of light trucks and SUVs, as well as Kaiser-Jeep's lucrative government contracts — notably the M151 MUTT line of military Jeeps and the DJ-Series postal Jeeps. AMC also expanded its international network. The military and special products business was reconstituted as American Motors General Products Division, later reorganized as AM General.
1970s product developmentsEdit
In 1970, AMC consolidated all passenger cars under one distinct brand identity and debuted the AMC Hornet range of compact cars.
With the Hornet and later Gremlin AMC shared platforms. The Gremlin, the first North American-built subcompact, sold more than 670,000 units from 1970-1978. The Hornet became AMC's best-selling passenger car since the Rambler Classic, with more than 860,000 units sold by the time production ended in 1977.
The new mid-sized AMC Matador replaced the Rebel in 1971, using an advertising campaign that asked, "What's a Matador?" In 1972, AMC won the tender for Los Angeles Police Department cruisers, and Matadors were used by the department from 1972 to 1975, replacing the Plymouth Satellite. American Motors supplied Mark VII Productions owner Jack Webb with two Matadors for use in his popular television series Adam-12, increasing the cars' public profile.
Starting in 1974, the Matador sedan and station wagon were mildly refreshed, with new boxier front ends. The Matador two-door hardtop, known as the "flying brick" due to its poor aerodynamics in NASCAR competition, was replaced at great cost with a sleek, smoothly shaped, and radically styled two-door coupe. The model received praise for its design, including "Best Styled Car of 1974" by Car and Driver magazine, customer satisfaction, and sold almost 100,000 coupes over a five-year period. The Matador Coupe shared few components with the Matador sedan and station wagon, other than suspension, drive train, some trim, and interior parts.
The Ambassador was redesigned and stretched 7 inches (178 mm) to became the biggest ever—just as the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo sparked gasoline rationing across the nation. The additional length was due to a new front end design and stronger energy absorbing bumpers required of all automobiles sold in the U.S. Sales of all large-sized cars fell due to economic problems and rising gasoline prices. The full-sized Ambassador was discontinued as AMC's flagship line after the 1974 model year. Nash and AMC had made Ambassadors during 1927-1974, the longest use of the same model name for any AMC product, and, at the time the longest continuously used nameplate in the industry.
In 1974, AMC's AM General subsidiary began building urban transit buses in cooperation with Flyer Industries of Winnipeg, Canada. The Metropolitan coach had sold 5,212 units when production ceased in 1978.
The AMC Pacer, an innovative all-new model introduced in March 1975 and billed as "the first wide small car", was a subcompact designed to provide the comfort of a full-sized car. Its pre-production development coincided with two changes in U.S. Federal passenger auto laws: first, the reduction in permissible emissions for passenger auto engines, which the Pacer would have met with the Wankel-type engine it was designed for, as the Wankel's compact dimensions allowed space for extensive emission control equipment in the engine bay; second, a tightening of U.S. passenger auto safety laws, which accounted for the Pacer's designed-in safety features, e.g. internal door beams. These, together with the wide body and large glass area, added considerable weight.
With the advent of the Arab Oil Embargo energy crisis of 1973, General Motors aborted the Wankel rotary engine around which the Pacer had been designed, as its fuel consumption exceeded that of conventional engines with similar power. Therefore AMC's existing 258 cu in (4.2 L) and 232 cu in (3.8 L) AMC Straight-6 engines were used in the Pacer instead. Fuel economy was better than a rotary, but still relatively poor in light of the new focus on energy efficiency. Also, as the Pacer shared few components other than drivetrain with other AMC cars, it was expensive to make and the cost increased when sales fell steeply after the first two years.
Development and production costs for the Pacer and Matador Coupe drained capital which might otherwise have been invested in updating the more popular Hornet and Gremlin lines, so that towards the end of the 1970s the company faced the growing energy crisis with aged products that were uncompetitive in hotly contested markets. However, "AMC used cars, as far back as 1967, had the advantage of good warranty coverage ... so most owners were conscious of low-cost car maintenance ... AMC units [became] some of the very best buys on the used car market" by 1975.
The 1977 Gremlin had redesigned headlights, grille, rear hatch and fascia. For economy in the fuel crisis, AMC offered the car with a more fuel-efficient Volkswagen-designed Audi 4-cylinder engine 2.0 L (122 cu in). The engine was expensive for AMC to build and the Gremlin retained the less costly but also less economical 232 cu in (3.8 L) as standard equipment.
The AMX nameplate was revived in 1977. It was a sporty appearance package on the Hornet hatchback featuring upgrades, as well as the 258 cu in (4.2 L) inline-6 as standard with a choice of 3-speed automatic or 4-speed manual transmissions. The 304 cu in (5.0 L) V8 engine was optional with the automatic transmission.
As all Matadors now received standard equipment that was formerly optional (e.g. power steering, automatic transmission), the "Brougham" package was dropped. Optional on the Matador coupe was a "landau" vinyl roof with "opera" windows, and top-line Barcelonas offered new two-tone paint.
For 1978, the Hornet platform was redesigned with an adaptation of the new Gremlin front-end design and renamed AMC Concord. AMC targeted it at the emerging "premium compact" market segment, paying particular attention to ride and handling, standard equipment, trim, and interior luxury.
Gremlins borrowed the Concord instrument panel, as well as a Hornet AMX-inspired GT sports appearance package and a new striping treatment for X models.
The AMC Pacer hood was modified to clear a V8 engine, and a Sports package replaced the former X package. With falling sales of Matador Coupes, sedans and wagons, their 304 cu in (5.0 L) V8 engine was dropped, leaving only the 258 cu in (4.2 L) Inline-6 (standard on coupes and sedans) and the 360 cu in (5.9 L) V8 (optional on coupes and sedans, standard on wagons). The two-tone Barcelona luxury package was offered on Matador sedans, and two-tone red paint introduced as an additional Barcelona option. Matador production ceased at the end of the model year with total sales of 10,576 units. The Matador was no longer attractive as automakers struggled to overcome economic woes including continuing fuel price increases and double digit domestic inflation.
In December, Pacer production ceased after a small run of 1980 models was built to use up parts stock.
Concords received a new front end treatment, and in their final season, hatchbacks became available in DL trim. On May 1, 1979, AMC marked the 25th anniversary of the Nash-Hudson merger with "Silver Anniversary" editions of the AMC Concord and Jeep CJ in two-tone silver (Jeeps then accounted for around 50% of the company's sales and most of its profits); and introduced "LeCar", a U.S. version of the small, fuel-efficient Renault 5, in dealer showrooms.
Concord and Spirit models were dropped after 1983.
Financial developments, Renault partnershipEdit
Late 1970s to early 1980sEdit
In February 1977, Time magazine reported that although AMC had lost $73.8 million in the previous two fiscal years, U.S. banks had agreed to a year’s extension for a $72.5 million credit that had expired in January; that Stockholders had received no dividends since 1974; and that Pacer sales did not match expectations. However, Time noted record Jeep sales and a backlog of orders for AM General’s buses.
Also in 1977, Gerald C. Meyers was appointed chairman and chief executive.
On March 31, 1978, AMC and Renault announced a sweeping agreement for the joint manufacture and distribution of cars and trucks that would achieve benefits for both. A month later, AMC announced that it would halt the production of standard urban transit buses after about 4,300 were sold by its AM General subsidiary during three years. In May 1978, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ordered the recall of all AMC's 1976 cars (except those conforming to California emissions regulations) — some 270,000 vehicles— plus 40,000 1975 and 1976 Jeeps and mini trucks, for correction of a fault in the pollution control system. Total cost was estimated at up to $3 million—more than AMC had earned the previous quarter.
American Motors lost an estimated $65 million on its conventional (non-Jeep) cars for the fiscal year ended September 30, 1978, but strong Jeep sales helped the company to an overall $36.7 million profit on sales of $2.6 billion. However, AMC faced costly engineering work to bring their Jeeps into compliance with a federal directive for all 4-wheel-drive vehicles to average 15 mpg-US (16 L/100 km/18 mpg-imp) by 1981.
A year later, with its share of the American market at 1.83%, the company struck a deal with Renault, the nationally owned French automaker. AMC would receive a $150 million cash injection, $50 million in credits, and also the rights to start building the Renault 5 in 1982. (A deal for Renault products to be sold through the AMC-Jeep dealer network had already been made in 1979.) In return, Renault acquired a 22.5% interest in AMC. This was not the first time the two companies had worked together. Lacking its own prestige model line in the early 1960s, Renault assembled CKD kits and marketed Rambler cars in France.
In 1979, AMC announced a record $83.9 million profit on sales of $3.1 billion (US$9,379,852,806 in 2020 dollars) for the fiscal year ending in September—this despite an economic downturn, soaring energy prices, rising American unemployment, automobile plants shutting down, and an American market trend towards imported cars. In October, the company’s car sales surged 37%, while they sank 21% for the industry as a whole.
However, a drop in Jeep sales caused by the declining economy and soaring energy prices began to constrict AMC’s cash flow. At the same time, pressure increased on the company’s non-Jeep product lines. The face-lifts and rebranding of AMC’s once-innovative and successful cars were not enough in a competitive landscape that had changed dramatically. No longer was the threat limited to the Big Three automakers (General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler). The Japanese used streamlined production methods such as outsourcing and Just In Time (JIT) supply-chain management. They had new, highly efficient assembly plants in the United States. And now they targeted the heart of AMC's passenger product line: small cars.
While Americans turned to the new imports in increasing numbers, AMC continued its struggle at the inefficient and aging Kenosha, Wisconsin facilities—the oldest continuously operating automobile plant in the world, where components and unfinished bodies still had to be transported across the city.
In early 1980, the banks refused AMC further credit. Lacking both capital and resources for the new, truly modern products it needed to offer, the company turned to Renault for a $90 million loan (US$239,878,444 in 2020 dollars). By September that year, AMC’s U.S. market share had fallen to 1.7%, and in November sales dropped 19.1%. AMC warned stockholders that the company could be bankrupted if they did not approve a plan for Renault to acquire as much as 59% of the company. On December 16, 1980, AMC shareholders "overwhelmingly approved making the French Government-owned Renault" their company's principal owner.
In January 1982 the company's former president W. Paul Tippett Jr. replaced Gerald C. Meyers as CEO, and Jose Dedeurwaerder, a Renault executive, became president. Dedeurwaerder brought a broad perspective at this critical time: as an engineer and international business executive with 23 years at Renault, he is credited with streamlining many of AMC's arcane management techniques. He also instituted important improvements in plant layouts, as well as in cost and quality control.
Renault, having increased their stake in the company several times to keep it solvent, eventually owned 49% in 1983. This development effectively ended AMC's run as a truly American car company.
New ownership and new management heralded a new product venture for AMC: a line of modern front-wheel drive cars, designed by Renault, to be produced at Kenosha.
1980s product developmentsEdit
In August 1979, for the 1980 model year, AMC introduced four-wheel drive versions of the Spirit and Concord, calling the collective line the AMC Eagle. Eagles rapidly became one of the company's best-known products and is considered one of the first "crossover SUVs". Eagles used the 2-wheel drive body shells mounted on an all-new platform developed by American Motors in the late 1970s. Featuring an innovative full-time four-wheel drive system, it sold best in snow-prone areas. Sales started strongly but declined over time. While the two-wheel drive Spirit and Concord were both discontinued after 1983 as the company concentrated on its new Renault Alliance, the Eagle survived for five years longer, albeit only in station wagon form, into the 1988 model year. This meant the four-wheel drive Eagle was the lone representative of the AMC brand from 1984-1988. All the company’s remaining output was branded Renault or Jeep. The last AMC Eagle was built on December 14, 1987.
The Renault Alliance was the first joint product of the AMC-Renault partnership. Introduced in 1983, the Alliance was a front-wheel drive Renault 9 compact restyled for the American market by Richard Teague and produced by AMC at Kenosha. The car was initially badged as a Renault, and some cars carried BOTH Renault and AMC badges, however most 1986 and all 1987 models had only AMC branding; it was available as a sedan with two or four doors, a hatchback (introduced in 1984 and badged as Encore), a two-door convertible and, for the final 1987 model year, a higher-performance version of the 2-door sedan and convertible sold as the GTA.
The new model, introduced at a time of increased interest in small cars, won several awards including Motor Trend Car of the Year. Motor Trend declared: "The Alliance may well be the best-assembled first-year car we’ve ever seen. Way to go Renault!" The Alliance was listed as number one on Car and Driver's list of Ten Best cars for 1983, The positive reception and sales of 200,000 Alliances by 1984 was hindered by the availability of only two body styles. The Alliance was a European-designed car and not fully suited to U.S. market demands. The distribution network was also not well supported, which led to lower quality delivered by dealerships with "disastrous consequences" for the image of the automobiles, as well as high warranty costs. Alliance production ended in June 1987.
More beneficial to AMC’s future was the introduction of an all-new line of compact Jeep Cherokee and Wagoneer models in the autumn of 1983 for the 1984 model year. The popularity of these downsized Jeeps pioneered a new market segment for what later became defined as the sport utility vehicle (SUV). They initially used the AMC 2.5 L (153 cu in) OHV four-cylinder engine with a carburetor, and a General Motors-built 2.8 L (171 cu in) carbureted V6 was optional. In 1986, throttle-body injection replaced the carburetor on the 2.5 L I4 engines. A Renault 2.1 L (128 cu in) Turbo-Diesel I4 diesel was also offered. Starting with the 1987 models, a 4.0 L (244 cu in) I6 engine, derived from the older 258 cu in (4.23 L) I6 with a new head design and an electronic fuel injection system, replaced the outsourced V6. American Motors' "new" engine was designed with help from Renault and incorporated Renault-Bendix (Renix) parts for fuel and ignition management. The 4.0 developed an outstanding reputation for reliability and toughness. Retained by Chrysler after the buyout, the design continued to be improved and refined until its discontinuation at the end of the 2006 model year. The 4.0 engine saw extensive application in XJ Cherokees and Wagoneers, Grand Cherokees, and Wranglers, and many of those engines saw (or are seeing) extremely long lives, quite a few exceeding 300,000 mi (480,000 km). The XJ Cherokee itself was built by Chrysler until the end of the 2001 model year in the U.S. and until 2005 in China.
Three other designs continued to be used after the Chrysler buyout: the Grand Wagoneer full-size luxury SUV, the full-sized J-series pickups, built on the same chassis as the earlier SJ model Wagoneers and Cherokees that dated from 1963 with the AMC 360 cu in (5.9 L) V8, and the Jeep Comanche (MJ) compact pickup, which debuted in 1986. Unlike most sport-utility vehicles which are based on adapted pickup truck designs, the Cherokee XJ SUV came first and the Comanche was designed as a later pickup truck version.
Production of the full-sized pickups ceased after 1987. The Grand Wagoneer and 360 V8 engine were dropped after 1991 (the last American-made vehicle whose engine used a carburetor for fuel delivery), and the Comanche bowed after 1992.
1985 and the final buyoutEdit
Marketplace and management changesEdit
There were significant changes in 1985 as the market moved away from AMC's small models. With fuel relatively cheap again, buyers turned to larger more powerful automobiles and AMC was unprepared for this development. Even the venerable Jeep CJ-5 was dropped after a 60 Minutes TV news magazine exposé of rollover tendencies under extreme conditions. AMC also confronted an angry work force. Labor was taking revenge, and reports circulated about sabotage of vehicles on the assembly lines because of the failure to receive promised wage increases. There were rumors that the aging Kenosha plant was to be shut down. At the same time, Chrysler was having trouble meeting demand for its M-body rear-drive models (Dodge Diplomat, Plymouth Gran Fury and Chrysler Fifth Avenue). Because they were assembled using the old "gate and buck system" and the tooling could be easily moved, Chrysler could supply the components and control the quality, while AMC assembled the car. Therefore, Lee Iacocca and Joe Cappy reached an agreement to use some of AMC's idle plant capacity in Kenosha.
These problems came in the midst of a transfer of power at AMC from Paul Tippet to a French executive, Pierre Semerena. The new management responded with tactical moves by selling the lawn care Wheel Horse Products Division and signing an agreement to build Jeeps in the People's Republic of China. The Pentagon had problems with AM General, a significant defense contractor being managed by a partially French-government-owned firm. The U.S. government would not allow a foreign government to own a significant portion of an important defense supplier. As a result, the profitable AM General Division was sold. Another milestone was the departure of Dick Teague: AMC's design vice president for 26 years, he was responsible for many Jeep and AMC designs including the Rambler American, Javelin, Hornet, Gremlin, Pacer, and Matador coupe.
Problems at Renault and the assassinationEdit
American Motors' major stockholder, Renault, itself was experiencing financial troubles of its own in France. The investment in AMC (including construction of a new Canadian assembly plant in Brampton, Ontario) forced cuts at home, resulting in the closure of several French plants and mass layoffs. Renault was down to just three alternatives regarding its American holdings: (1) They could declare AMC officially bankrupt thereby lose its investment; (2) They could come up with more money, but Renault management perceived AMC as a bottomless pit; or (3) AMC could be put up for sale and the French could get back part of their investment. Against these detractions, Renault's chairman, Georges Besse, continued to champion the French firm's future in the North American market; pointing to the company's completion of the newest and most-advanced automotive assembly plant in North America at the time at Bramalea — as well as the recent introduction of the thoroughly modern, fuel-injected 4.0 L and 2.5 L engines. In addition, Jeep vehicles were riding an unprecedented surge in demand. It seemed to Besse and others that AMC was on course for profitability.
However, on November 17, 1986, Georges Besse, who had a high profile among French capitalists, was assassinated by Action Directe, a clandestine militant extremist group variously described as communist, anarchist and Maoist, which professed strong sympathies for the proletariat and the aspirations of the Third World. The murder was carried out by members of Action Directe's Pierre Overney Commando (named after a Maoist militant killed by a Renault factory guard). The group stated that the murder was in retaliation for Besse having sacked tens of thousands of workers — 34,000 from the French aluminum producer PUK-Péchiney and 25,000 from Renault.
Sale to ChryslerEdit
Under pressure from Renault executives following Besse's death, Renault's new president set out to repair employee relations and divest the company of its investment in American Motors.
The earlier arrangement between Chrysler and AMC in 1985, under which AMC would produce M-body chassis rear-drive large cars for two years from 1986–88, fed the rumor that Chrysler was about to buy AMC. According to the head of manufacturing for Chrysler at the time, Stephan Sharf, the existing relationship with AMC producing a car for a competitor facilitated the negotiations.
On March 9, 1987, Chrysler agreed to buy Renault's share in AMC, plus all the remaining shares, for about US$1.5 billion (US$2,898,648,649 in 2020 dollars). AMC became the Jeep-Eagle division of Chrysler. It was the Jeep brand that Chrysler CEO Lee Iacocca really wanted — in particular the ZJ Grand Cherokee, then under development by Jeep engineers, which ultimately proved highly profitable for Chrysler (the nameplate remains in production today). However, the buyout included other attractive deal sweeteners for Chrysler. Among them was the world-class, brand new manufacturing plant in Bramalea Ontario, which offered Iacocca an unprecedented opportunity to increase his company's production capacity at a fire-sale price. AMC had designed and built the plant in anticipation of building the clean-slate designed Eagle Premier. Additional profitable acquisitions were the AMC dealer network (the addition of which strengthened Chrysler's retail distribution — many AMC dealers switched to selling Chrysler products); and AMC's underrated organization and management talent — which Chrysler quickly assimilated (numerous leading Chrysler engineers and executives were ex-AMC).
Ironically the sale came at a time when the automotive press was enthusiastic about the proposed 1988 lineup of Renault and Jeep vehicles, and reports that the financial outlook for the tiny automaker were improving.
The sale marked Renault's withdrawal from the North American market (excluding Mexico) in the 1988 model year. However, the French company has since returned to that market with its subsequent purchase of a US$5.4 billion controlling stake in Nissan in March 1999. In contrast to the AMC/Renault partnership, Carlos Ghosn, CEO and President of Renault of France and Nissan of Japan, is guiding the Renault-Nissan alliance away from national identities.
American Motors was forced to constantly innovate for 33 years until Chrysler absorbed it in 1987. The lessons learned from this experience were integrated into the company that bought AMC. The organization, strategies, as well as several key executives allowed Chrysler to gain an edge on the competition. Even today, the lessons gained from the AMC experience continue to provide benefits to other firms in the industry. There are a number of legacies from AMC's business strategies.
AMC had an ability to formulate strategies that were often evaluated by industry critics as "strokes of brilliance". According to Roy D. Chapin Jr. AMC realized they were up against the giants of the industry, so to compete successfully they had to be able to move quickly and with ingenuity. An essential strategy practiced by AMC was to rely on outside vendors to supply components in which they had differential advantages. This has finally been accepted in the US auto industry, but only after each of the Big Three experienced the failure of attempting to be self-sufficient. Another example of AMC's agility was the ability of management to squeeze money out of reluctant bankers, even in the face of bankruptcy. These core abilities helped save the company from collapse and after each obstacle, give it the wherewithal to keep it operating. Ironically, AMC was never stronger than just before its demise.
AMC's managers anticipated important trends in the automotive industry. It preached fuel efficiency in the 1950s, long before most auto buyers demanded it. Led by AMC's Rambler and several European cars, the small car innovation reduced the Big Three's market share from 93% in 1957 to 82% in 1959. The company inherited foreign manufacturing and sales partnerships from Nash and continued developing business relations, decades before most of the international consolidations among automobile makers took place. AMC was the first U.S. automaker to establish ownership agreement with a foreign automaker, Renault. Although small in size, AMC was able to introduce numerous industry innovations. Starting in 1957, AMC was the only U.S. manufacturer to totally immerse all automobile bodies in primer paint for protection against rust, until competitors adopted the practice in 1964. Even one of AMC's most expensive new product investments (the Pacer) established many features that were later adopted by the auto industry worldwide. These included aerodynamic body design, space-efficient interiors, aircraft style doors, and a large greenhouse for visibility. AMC was also effective in other areas such as marketing by introducing low rate financing. AMC's four-wheel drive vehicles established the foundation for the modern SUV market segments, and "classic" Jeep models continue to be the benchmark in this field. Roy D. Chapin drew on his experiences as a hunter and fisherman and marketed the Jeep brand successfully to people with like interests. The brand developed a cult appeal that continues.
The purchase of AMC was instrumental in reviving Chrysler. According to Robert (Bob) Lutz, former President of Chrysler, the AMC acquisition was a big and risky undertaking. The purchase was part of Chrysler's strategic "retreat-cum-diversification" plan that he states did not have the right focus. Initially the goal was to obtain the world-renowned Jeep brand. However, Lutz discovered that the decision to buy AMC turned out to be a gold mine for Chrysler. At that time, Chrysler's management was attempting to find a model to improve structure and operations, "something that would help get our minds unstuck and thinking beyond the old paradigms that we were so familiar with". In this transformation, "Chrysler's acquisition of AMC was one of the all-time great moments in corporate serendipity" according to Lutz "that most definitely played a key role in demonstrating how to accomplish change".
According to Lutz (1993), while AMC had its share of problems, it was far from being a bunch of "brain-dead losers". He describes the "troops" at AMC as more like the Wake Island Marines in battle, "with almost no resources, and fighting a vastly superior enemy, they were able to roll out an impressive succession of new products". After first reacting with anger to the purchase, Chrysler managers soon anticipated the benefits. To further solidify the organizational competencies held by AMC, Lee Iacocca agreed to retain former AMC units, such as engineering, completely intact. In addition, AMC's lead engineer, François Castaing, was made head of all engineering at Chrysler. In an unthinkable strategic move, Castaing completely dismantled the entrenched Chrysler groups. In their place AMC's "platform team" was implemented. These were close-knit cross-functional groups responsible for the whole vehicle, as contrasted with Chrysler's highly functional structure. In this capacity, Castaing's strategy was to eliminate the corporate administrative overhead bureaucracy. This move shifted corporate culture and agitated veteran executives who believed that Chrysler's reputation as "the engineering company" was being destroyed. Yet, according to the popular press, by the 1980s Chrysler's reputation was totally shot, and by Lutz's view only dramatic action was going to change that. In summary, Chrysler's purchase of AMC laid the critical foundation to help re-establish a strategy for its revival in the 1990s.
Top managers at Chrysler after the AMC buyout appeared to have made errors similar to those by AMC. For example, Chrysler invested heavily in new untested models while not keeping up its profitable high-volume lines.
After the DaimlerChrysler merger, the combined company also encountered the problem of having too many platforms. It also failed to achieve synergies by sharing components and from Chrysler's paperless design and supplier capabilities. Mercedes-Benz managers were protective of their designs and components and "advanced R&D was clearly put under German direction." This policy increased production costs. They could have observed the experience of the Nash and Hudson merger designed to achieve manufacturing efficiencies and savings from component sharing. The first product combining Chrysler and Mercedes technology and engineering with a Mercedes name was in 2006, eight years after DaimlerChrysler AG was created.
The AMC influence also continued at General Motors. GM recruited a new executive team to turn itself from near bankruptcy in the early 2000s. Among the new strategists at GM was Lutz who brought an understanding of the importance of passion in the product design. Lutz implemented a new thinking at GM that incorporated the systems and structures that originated from AMC's lean and focused operations.
Renault implemented the lessons it learned from its investment in AMC. The French firm took a parallel approach as it did with its initial ownership of AMC and applied it to resurrect the money-losing Nissan automaker in Japan.
Legacy of productsEdit
Chrysler revived the "Spirit" name dropped by AMC after 1983 for use on one of its A platform cars, (the Dodge Spirit) from 1989-1995. The planned Renault Medallion was sold as the Eagle Medallion in 1988 and 1989. A Renault/AMC concept, the Summit, was produced by Mitsubishi Motors beginning in 1989. The planned all-new 1988 Renault Premier, a joint development effort between American Motors and Renault, and for which the Brampton Assembly plant (Brampton, Ontario] was built, was sold by Chrysler as the 1988-1992 Eagle Premier, with a rebadged Dodge Monaco variant available from 1990-1992. The full-sized Premier's platform was far more advanced than anything Chrysler was building at the time. After some re-engineering and a re-designation to Chrysler code LH, the Eagle Premier went on to form the backbone of Chrysler's passenger car lineup during the 1990s as the Chrysler Concorde (a revived model name that was briefly used by Plymouth in 1951 and 1952), Chrysler New Yorker, Chrysler LHS, Dodge Intrepid, and Eagle Vision. Plymouth almost received their own rendition of the LH platform, which was to be called the Accolade, but Chrysler decided to nix this idea not long before LH production started. The Chrysler 300M was likewise a Premier/LH-derived car and was initially to have been the next-generation Eagle Vision, until the Eagle brand was dropped after 1998. Hence the much lauded "cab forward" designed that Chrysler took so much credit for in the 1990s was actually a modified and restyled version of the AMC/Renault collaboration that resulted in the Premier.
Chrysler marketed the SJ Jeep Grand Wagoneer until 1991, leaving it almost entirely unaltered from the final AMC rendition before the buyout. The Jeep Comanche pickup truck remained until 1992, while the Cherokee remained until 2001 in the U.S. (the XJ Cherokee was produced in China through 2006 as the Cherokee 2500). Although it was not introduced until 1993, the Jeep Grand Cherokee was initially an AMC-developed vehicle.
Traces of AMC remained within. AMC's Toledo, Ohio plants continued to manufacture Jeep Wranglers and Libertys, as well as parts and components for Chrysler, Dodge, and Jeep vehicles (although Toledo Machining and Forge was closed in 2005). AMC's main plant in Wisconsin is still active, albeit heavily downsized, as the Kenosha Engine Plant, producing engines for several Chrysler Group products, including the Wrangler. The 4.0 litres (242 cu in) engine was used until the 2006 model year by DaimlerChrysler in the Jeep Wrangler. AMC's technologically advanced Bramalea Assembly and Stamping Plants in Brampton, Ontario later produced the LX-cars — the Dodge Charger and the Chrysler 300, and the now discontinued Dodge Magnum.
In terms of AMC-related parts, some were used as late as 2006, when the Jeep Wrangler (the last new product introduced by AMC before the Chrysler deal) was still using the AMC Straight-6 engine in some models, as well as the door handles that were used as far back as the late 1960s by AMC. Both were retired when the Wrangler was completely redesigned for the 2007 model year.
AM General, sold by American Motors in 1982, is still in business building the American Motors-designed High Mobility Multi-Wheel Vehicle (HMMWV - "Humvee") for American and allied militaries. AM General also built the now-discontinued civilian variant — the H1 — and manufactured a Chevrolet Tahoe-derived companion, the H2, under contract to GM, who acquired the rights to the civilian Hummer brand in 1999. GM was forced to phase out the Hummer brand in early 2010 as a part of its bankruptcy restructuring after offering it for sale, but failing to find a suitable buyer.
Although Chrysler introduced new logos for its brands in the 1990s and again in 2010 after the Fiat Group took control of the company, Jeep still uses the AMC-era logo introduced shortly after AMC's purchase of the brand in 1970. Until the Chrysler purchase, Jeep's logo also featured the AMC emblem.
Legacy of divisions and facilitiesEdit
During its history, American Motors bought or created, then later sold and divested itself of several specialized divisions, some which continue to exist today:
Kelvinator, the appliance subdivision of Nash-Kelvinator, was sold by American Motors in 1968 to White Consolidated Industries. and subsequently became part of Electrolux. The Kelvinator Company is still in business.
Beijing Jeep was established by AMC in 1983 to produce Jeeps for the burgeoning Chinese market; the joint venture was inherited by Chrysler and continues under the ownership of the new Chrysler. AMC's trials with the venture were the subject of a fairly well-known book on the venture, "Beijing Jeep", by James Mann.
AMC World Headquarters (1954–1987) was located at 14250 Plymouth Road in Detroit and was widely known as the Plymouth Road Office Center (PROC).
The initial building had been built in 1926-27 by the 'Electric Refrigeration Corporation (subsequently Nash-Kelvinator) with design by Amedeo Leoni, industrial layout by Wallace McKenzie, and tower enclosure and industrial units by William E. Kapp, of SHG. The original 600,000 sq ft (56,000 m²) three-story factory and four-story administration building had been headquarters to Nash-Kelvinator from 1937-1954 as well as a factory for refrigerators, electric ranges, and commercial refrigeration—as well as airplane propellers for the U.S. military effort during World War II.
During World War II, the U.S. War Department contracted with Nash-Kelvinator to produce 900 Sikorsky R-6 model helicopters. As part of that contract, a 4.5 acres (1.8 ha) site north of the factory was used as the smallest airport in the world as a flight testing base. Nash-Kelvinator produced about fifty R-6s a month during the war. When the contract was terminated at the end of the war, a total of 262 helicopters had been constructed.
During Chrysler's occupancy of the complex, it was known Jeep and (Dodge) Truck Engineering (JTE), including facilities for Body on Frame (BoF) work as well as testing facilities and labs. The buildings included 1,500,000 square feet (140,000 m²), approximately one third devoted to engineering and computer functions.
As of 2007, Chrysler still employed over 1,600 people at the complex, moving those operations in mid-2009 to the Chrysler Technology Center. PROC was made available for sale by Chrysler in early 2010.
American Center - AMC's corporate headquarters in Southfield, Michigan is still standing, still open, and still called "American Center". The original "American Center" signage at the top of the building remained until 2005, although the AMC logo has been removed. The signage has since been changed to Charter One. The 25-story building is rented to several different organizations and companies as office space. After the Chrysler acquisition, Chrysler Financial occupied as much as 175,000 square feet (16,300 m²) of the building.
Toledo South Assembly Plants - Torn down in 2007 by Chrysler. Until it was demolished, still visible on most of the signage on the outside of the factories were areas where Chrysler painted over the AMC logo.
Toledo Forge  - Torn down by Chrysler in 2007.
Brampton (formerly Bramalea) Assembly and Satellite Stamping Plants. — still in use by Chrysler. AMC designed this US$260 million (US$549,752,491 in 2020 dollars), 2,500,000-square-foot (230,000 m²) plant, which was operational by 1986. This plant was designed and built by AMC for the specific purpose of building the Eagle Premier. Like the older Brampton plant (see "Former Factory Facilities", below), this factory was also part of American Motors Canada, Inc., and with the Chrysler buy-out in 1987, became part of Chrysler Canada Limited. The plant currently builds the LX series of vehicles including the Chrysler 300, the Dodge Charger. Also Producing a slightly modified version of the lX series; renamed the LC series; supporting the Dodge Challenger nameplate.
Kenosha "Main" Plant - Portions of the Kenosha Main Plant, now Chrysler's Kenosha Engine plant, with some new additions, at 52nd Street and 30th Avenue, continued to be run by Chrysler as an engine-production factory. This plant is scheduled to close in September 2010 as part of Chrysler LLC's Chapter 11 bankruptcy procedure which resulted from the ongoing automotive industry crisis.
Canadian Fabricated Products Ltd. - An AMC division (part of AMC Canada, Ltd.) in Stratford, Ontario; established 1971 and sold post-buyout by DaimlerChrysler in 1994; produced automotive interior trim.
Guelph Products - An AMC division (also part of AMC Canada, Ltd.) in Guelph, Ontario; opened in 1987, and subsequently sold by Chrysler in early 1993; the operation supplied moulded plastic components to the Brampton Assembly Plant.
Coleman Products Corporation - An AMC subsidiary in Coleman, Wisconsin. Manufactured automotive wiring harnesses for AMC and other automakers.
Evart Products Co. - An AMC subsidiary in Evart, Michigan. The plant was established in 1953 with 25 workers and eventually expanded to over 1,200, becoming Osceola County's largest employer. This factory manufactured injection molded plastic parts (notably, grilles) for AMC (supplying 90% of in-house needs), as well as for other automakers. In 1966, Products Wire Harness was built. After Chrysler's purchase of AMC, Collins & Aikman took over the factory.
Mercury Plastics Co. - Mercury Plastics operated a plant at 34501 Harper Ave., Mt. Clemens, Michigan. The company was acquired in 1973 for 611,111 shares of AMC stock. The company produced plastic parts for AMC, as well as for uses in other industries.
Windsor Plastics Co. - Windsor Plastics, 601 North Congress Avenue, Evansville, Indiana was acquired in 1970. The division produced plastic parts for AMC and other industries. The company was sold to Guardian Industries in 1982, and underwent a name change to Guardian Automotive Trim, Inc. It is still in operation today. The original factory in Evansville continues to manufacture plastic parts for the OEM and aftermarket automotive industries. Items manufactured include grilles, bezels, and other parts.
The AMC Proving Grounds - The former 300 acres (1.2 km2/0.47 sq mi) AMC Proving Grounds in Burlington, Wisconsin had initially been Nash's test track and subsequently became Jeep's test facilities (after AMC's acquisition of Willys in the 1970s). The grounds fell into disuse after Chrysler's takeover of AMC in 1987 and subsequently became the engineering and test facilty for MGA Research. The company rents out this proving grounds to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), for "ride-and-drive" events by automakers, as well as for movies and commercials.
- AMC Proving Grounds:
Axle tooling equipment - sold in 1985 to Dana Corp. Dana manufactured the AMC-20 axles for AM General's Hummer H1. The company also continues to produce the AMC-15 axle as well; however they has been upgraded from AMC's original design with multiple variations (including front axle designs) and they now referred to as a Dana 35.
Holmes Foundry, Ltd. - AMC's block-casting foundry was a major AMC factory which is now completely obliterated. Holmes had its main office and foundry at 200 Exmouth Street, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. Holmes was established in 1918, by Mr. J. S. Blunt, and was called Holmes Blunt Limited. In the early years, Ford Motor Company contracted the plant for a steady supply of engine casting blocks. This factory had a reputation locally as a dirty, dangerous place to work. The company had three divisions, all operating on one site at the edge of Sarnia. Beginning in 1962, AMC contracted with Holmes Foundry to supply AMC with cylinder block castings. American Motors acquired 25% interest in the foundry in January 1966. In July 1970, AMC acquired 100% of Holmes Foundry through an exchange of shares, making it a wholly owned subsidiary. However, it was not until October 1981 that Holmes Foundry finally became a Division of American Motors, Canada. As part of its acquisition of AMC in 1987, Chrysler Corporation took ownership of the Holmes facility and its manufacturing business, but closed the operation on September 16, 1988. The industrial facilities were cleaned of their environmental contaminants in 2005, in preparation for a new highway interchange to be built on the site.
Kenosha "Lakefront" (Kenosha, Wisconsin) Plant - The AMC plant in downtown Kenosha along Lake Michigan was razed, and after reclamation the land was used for new development. At the company's inception in 1954, the plant covered 3,195,000 sq ft (296,800 m²) and together with the had an annual production capacity of 350,000 cars. The Engine plant, located in the center of town, is still in use by Chrysler. Its days appeared numbered after being listed as one of the plants that would be shut down due to Chrysler's bankruptcy proceedings.
Milwaukee Body (Milwaukee, Wisconsin) Plant - AMC inherited a 1,600,000 sq ft (150,000 m²) body plant in Milwaukee from Nash. The plant was the main body plant for Seaman Body Company, which did a lot of business with Nash and other makers assembling bodies of various designs. For AMC, the plant was sometimes an internal headache. For instance, in late 1961, George Romney himself stormed through the plant and threatened to close it and eliminate its 9,000 jobs due to labor problems. The plant survived until the Chrysler buyout. Chrysler later decided to dispose of the factory. Upon closure, the site was named as a Superfund site. The factory was demolished and the site rehabilitated and redeveloped.
Danforth Ave (Toronto, Ontario) Plant - Inherited from Nash. This plant was purchased by Nash from Ford of Canada in 1946. The first Canadian-built Nash rolled off the line in April, 1950. Upon the formation of American Motors in 1954, the plant assembled 1955 Nash and Hudson Ramblers (2- and 4-door sedans); as well as Nash Canadian Statesman and Hudson Wasp (4door sedans). In 1956, the plant continued to assemble Nash and Hudson Rambler (4-door sedans and wagons) and the Nash Canadian Statesman (4-door sedan); but The Hudson Wasp was imported. That same year, American Motors Sales (Canada) Limited was formed — taking over Nash Motors of Canada Limited and Hudson Motors of Canada Limited. In 1957, AMC assembled the Rambler Six and Rambler Rebel V8 at the Danforth plant; but in July, 1957, AMC closed the plant and imported Ramblers into Canada until 1961.
Tilbury, Ontario Assembly Plant - Another plant AMC inherited from the 1954 merger; this one via Hudson. Specifically, it was a contract with CHATCO Steel Products which actually owned the plant. American Motors ceased Hudson production at the Tilbury plant in 1955.
Brampton Assembly Plant - AMC opened a plant in 1960 in Brampton, Ontario, Canada. It was part of American Motors Canada, Inc. Rambler Drive, a small street just west of this plant, still exists and leads into a residential subdivision that was built in the 1960s. In 1987, with the Chrysler buy-out, the division and the plant were absorbed as well, becoming part of Chrysler Canada Limited. The plant was closed in 1994 and sold to Wal-Mart for use as their Canadian warehouse. This plant/warehouse was demolished in 2004 and redeveloped in 2007 with multiple smaller commercial buildings now onsite; a new Lowes Home Improvement Warehouse now takes up the largest section of this commercial development. Note that this is a separate facility from the current Brampton (formerly Bramalea) Assembly and Satellite Stamping Plants nearby.
South Charleston Stamping Plant - A South Charleston, West Virginia facility owned by Park Corporation of Cleveland, OH since 1969. While AMC leased it, the plant stamped steel automotive parts. The plant was later leased to other auto companies. The plant was in the news in October 2006 as the most recent tenant, Union Stamping and Assembly, declared bankruptcy.
Later reuse of the nameEdit
A new company was formed in Palmdale, California, in 2001 by Ron Simon. Simon registered a new trademark for two American Motors logos. The company's website specifically claimed no affiliation to the previous American Motors, but used the previous company's logos on its website. The website is now dead; one of Simon's trademarks expired in 2005; the other is live.
The monochrome logo was again trademarked in 2008 by Michael Knepp; the trademark was abandoned the following year. Chrysler LLC holds a live trademark for the name "American Motors", which was applied for in 2005.
AMC passenger carsEdit
- 1955-1962: Metropolitan*
- 1970-1978: AMC Gremlin**
- 1979-1983: AMC Spirit
- 1981-1983: AMC Eagle (SX/4 and Kammback)
- 1983-1987: Renault Alliance based on the Renault 9.
- 1984-1987: Renault Encore - based on the Renault 11.
* - The Metropolitan was introduced by Nash in 1954.
** - The Gremlin was the company's first modern subcompact.
- 1955-1956: Nash Rambler/Hudson Rambler
- 1957: Rambler Six/Rambler Rebel
- 1958-1969: Rambler American/AMC Rambler
- 1968-1970: AMC AMX
- 1968-1974: AMC Javelin
- 1970-1977: AMC Hornet
- 1975-1980: AMC Pacer
- 1978-1983: AMC Concord
- 1980-1988: AMC Eagle
- 1958-1960: Rambler Six/Rambler Rebel
- 1961-1966: Rambler Classic
- 1958-1964: Rambler Ambassador (1958-1962 also known as "Ambassador by Rambler")
- 1965-1966: Rambler/AMC Marlin
- 1967-1970: Rambler/AMC Rebel
- 1971-1978: AMC Matador
- Full size
- 1955-1956: Hudson Wasp
- 1955-1956: Nash Statesman
- 1955-1957: Hudson Hornet
- 1955-1957: Nash Ambassador
- 1965-1974: Rambler/AMC Ambassador
- 1967: AMC Marlin
- 1988-1992: Eagle Premier
- Main article: List of AMC engines
- 196 cu in (3.2 L) Rambler I6 (L head and OHV version-ended 1965)
- 199 cu in (3.3 L) Typhoon Six I6 (Starting in 1966)
- 232 cu in (3.8 L) Typhoon Six I6 (Beginning in 1964)
- 250 cu in (4.1 L) AMC V8 (Ending in 1961)
- 287 cu in (4.7 L) AMC V8 (Beginning in 1963)
- 327 cu in (5.4 L) AMC V8 (also used by Kaiser Jeep 1965-1967)
- 121 cu in (2.0 L) AMC I4 1
- 232 cu in (3.8 L) AMC I6
- 258 cu in (4.2 L) AMC I6
- 304 cu in (5.0 L) AMC V8
- 360 cu in (5.9 L) AMC V8 (Ending in 1978 for automobiles and through 1991 in Jeeps)
- 401 cu in (6.6 L) AMC V8 (Ending in 1974 as a regular production order in automobiles; was available in fleet/police use until at least 1975, in 1975 89 units were installed in Matadors; 4 coupes and 85 sedans-wagons. Available in full size Jeeps through 1979, also used by International Harvester in 1974 in 1200 series pickups & Travelall during a strike at International Harvester, though IH called the engine a 400 CID)
Also: Kaiser Jeeps used the AMC 327, Buick 225 ("Dauntless V6"), Buick 350 ("Dauntless V8"), Willys 134 I4 ("Hurricane"). The Downsized Jeep XJ Cherokee/Wagoneer used the Chevrolet 2.8 Litre V6 in 1983-1984.
1 AMC contracted with Volkswagen to buy tooling for the Audi 2.0 L OHC I4. Major parts (block, crankshaft, head assembly) were initially purchased from Audi and shipped to the U.S. where final assembly was accomplished by AMC at a plant purchased specifically for production of this engine. Sales never reached numbers to justify taking over total production. AMC made several changes to the engine. They were prevented from using the Volkswagen or Audi names in association with the AMC assembled version by contractual agreement.
AMC models historically regarded by hobbyists as particularly "collectible" include the Javelin, AMX, and performance specials such as the 1957 Rambler Rebel, 1965-67 Marlin, 1969 Hurst SC/Rambler, 1970 Rebel Machine, and 1971 Hornet SC/360. These models enjoyed limited popularity when new, resulting in low production figures. In January 2007, the AMC AMX was "really taking off in the muscle car market" according to the editors of Hemmings Classic Car, and it had "left its mark among AMC collectors' minds as a great alternative" to higher-priced Hemi-powered muscle cars.
The early Javelin (1968–70) stands out from the Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler pony cars. Car expert Jack Nerad noted in a 2007 article "several fully restored AMX models" listed for sale at "little more than half the price of a comparable Buick Gran Sport, Chevrolet Chevelle, Olds 4-4-2 or Pontiac GTO" in support of the author’s opinion that the 1971-74 Javelin was "clearly an outstanding alternative muscle car for the enthusiast on a budget."
According to James C. Mays, automotive historian and author of The Savvy Guide to Buying Collector Cars at Auction, the "Wow! Factor" is an important and measurable pleasure to an owner whether their car is driven or sits in a climate-controlled garage. His "Wow! Factor" includes examples of a bright red 1969 AMX that according to its owner "is just a fast Rambler", but draws more people at events than the more prestigiousFerraris and Lamborghinis, as well as a "million-dollar moment" when a Rambler owner was serenaded with the "Beep Beep" song by The Playmates while fueling at a travel plaza. Moreover, the author's collector car, a 1969 Ambassador station wagon, made friends as strangers came to greet and host him as if "long lost kin". Mays points out the ready availability of parts for AMC engines and his experiences in having service done on Ramblers without being charged for the work in exchange for the experience of driving a "sassy Rambler" (a 1966 American convertible) and having pictures taken with it.
Other AMC models, once somewhat ignored by the hobby, are now considered "future collectibles". Examples include the 1959 Ambassador 4-door hardtop station wagon, of which only 578 were produced, and the Jeep Scrambler CJ8, a combined pickup truck-Jeep, of which only a few thousand were produced.
Hemmings Classic Car magazine included the 1969-70 Rebel SST and the 1974-78 Matador coupe in their 2008 list of "dollar-for-pound [weight]" cars that could be bought in show-quality condition for a comparatively modest outlay, The writer also noted that "most of AMC's '70s lineup" qualified for inclusion on the list.
The AMC Gremlin is described to have "a cult-like following in today’s collectible car market. The Gremlin shares components with some other AMC models its repair and restoration can be relatively inexpensive compared with other "historic cars".
The AMC Pacer increased in value according to a Pacer owner who is the CEO of a major insurance provider for collector car owners.
There are active Rambler and AMC car clubs in the U.S. and elsewhere (examples in External Links).
Hot Rod Magazine revival April Fool's jokeEdit
In April 2008, Hot Rod Magazine released an article claiming that American Motors was in the process of being revived. The vehicles in the works were to be the AMX, Matador, Ambassador, Pacer, and Gremlin. Illustrated with drawings of the concept cars entering production and accompanied by plentiful information, it was a popular article, although it was later revealed to be an April Fools' joke.
- Amitron and Electron - Experimental battery powered city cars designed by American Motors.
- AMC/Jeep Transmissions
|This page uses some content from Wikipedia. The original article was at American Motors. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Tractor & Construction Plant Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons by Attribution License and/or GNU Free Documentation License. Please check page history for when the original article was copied to Wikia|
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Holusha, John (10 March 1987). "Chrysler is Buying American Motors; Cost is $1.5 Billion". Retrieved on 7 August 2010.
- ↑ The day Hudson and Nash boards of directors agreed to the merger.Georgano, Nick (1996). The American automobile: a centenary. Smithmark, 180. ISBN 9780765196316.
- ↑ "Gamble on the Rambler" (19 December 1955). Retrieved on 8 February 2011.
- ↑ "Autos: Victory for Rambler", Time. April 20, 1959, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,864627,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="8 February 2011">8 February 2011</time>.
- ↑ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (23 October 2007). "1965–1966 Rambler Ambassador". auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved on 8 February 2011.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2008. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
- ↑ "Answer from the Hustlers", Time. 25 January 1954, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,823270,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="12 July 2010">12 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ Flammang, James M. (1994). Chronicle of the American automobile: over 100 years of auto history. Publications International, 278. ISBN 9780785307785. Retrieved on 29 July 2010.
- ↑ "Time Clock, Oct. 12, 1953", Time. 12 October 1953, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,860075,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="12 July 2010">12 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ "Time Clock, Feb. 7, 1955", Time. 7 February 1955, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,823771,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="12 July 2010">12 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ "Second-Best Year", Time. 1 August 1955, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,866588,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="12 July 2010">12 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ "Autos: Merger No. 3", Time. 28 June 1954, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,860916,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="12 July 2010">12 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ Bonsall, Thomas E. (2000). More Than They Promised: The Studebaker Story. Stanford University Press, 287. ISBN 9780804735865. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ "Personnel: Changes of the Week", Time. 25 October 1954, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,823618,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="12 July 2010">12 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 "Autos: New Entry", Time. 22 March 1954, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,819620,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="12 July 2010">12 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ Meyers, Gerald C. (1986). When it hits the fan: Managing the nine crises of business. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 9780395411711.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 "Rearview mirror", Ward's AutoWorld. 1 February 2000, http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_rearview_mirror_15/index.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="12 July 2010">12 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ "Rearview Mirror", Ward's AutoWorld. 1 April 2000, http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_rearview_mirror_13/index.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="12 July 2010">12 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ Russell, Roger. "Sonotone History: Tubes, Hi-Fi Electronics, Tape heads and Nicad Batteries". Sonotone Corporation History. Retrieved on 12 July 2010.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Flory, Jr., J. "Kelly" (2004). American Cars, 1960-1972: Every Model, Year by Year. McFarland & Company, 133. ISBN 9780786412730.
- ↑ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (23 October 2007). "1965-1966 Rambler Ambassador". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved on 12 July 2010.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Stetson, Damon (27 August 1961). "American Motors And U.A.W. Agree To Share Profits", p. 1. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ Jones, David R. (7 September 1964). "American Motors Putting Stress on Power and Luxury", p. 6. Retrieved on 8 August 2010.
- ↑ Vartan, Vartaing G. (20 March 1964). "Rambler Chief Is Fighting 'Big 3'; Roy Abernethy Says American Pushes Hard Battle", p. 45. Retrieved on 8 August 2010.
- ↑ Jones, David A. (25 July 1965). "Rambler Facing Eroding Market", p. F1. Retrieved on 8 August 2010.
- ↑ "American Motors Is Counting on Sleekly Styled Cars" (22 September 1966), p. 43. Retrieved on 8 August 2010.
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 Goodstein, Judith (2004), "Godfather of the Hybrid", Engineering & Science (California Institute of Technology) LXVII(3), http://pr.caltech.edu/periodicals/EandS/articles/LXVII3/Wouk%20Feature.pdf. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="12 July 2010">12 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ "American Motors Picks Chapin For Chief as 2 Men Step Down; Evans and Abernethy Drop Out of Management Team Luneburg Is President" (10 January 1967), p. 53. Retrieved on 8 August 2010.
- ↑ Hofmann, Paul (11 January 1967). "A Younger Management At Rambler Maker; Rambler Maker Accenting Youth", p. 65. Retrieved on 8 August 2010.
- ↑ "Road Test: American Motors Matador X" Road & Track magazine, March 1974. See: the article, retrieved December 23, 2007.
- ↑ Ward's Auto World Staff (1 February 2000), "Rearview mirror", Ward's Auto World, http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_rearview_mirror_15/. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="16 January 2011">16 January 2011</time>.
- ↑ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (26 October 2007). "1974-1978 AMC Matador". Retrieved on 16 January 2011.
- ↑ Lamm, Michael (April 1974), "Styling is a knockout, but so is the low roofline!", Popular Mechanics 141(4): 98–101, http://books.google.com/?id=odQDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA98&dq=Matador+styling+is+a+knockout. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="16 January 2011">16 January 2011</time>.
- ↑ Bond, Craig. "Matador Coupe History 1974-1978". Retrieved on 16 January 2011.
- ↑ Norbye, Jan P. (October 1973), "New bumpers have uniform height, take angle impacts", Popular Science 203(4): 90–91, http://books.google.com/?id=lpiMSzja6W4C&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90&dq=New+bumpers+have+uniform+Ambassador. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="16 January 2011">16 January 2011</time>.
- ↑ "Coach Manufacturer History - AM General". Ohio Museum of Transportation (13 August 2004). Retrieved on 16 January 2011.
- ↑ "Buying a Used Car", Kiplinger's Personal Finance 29(1): 27. January 1975, http://books.google.com/books?id=4wMEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA27&lpg=PA27&dq=AMC+used+cars,+as+far+back+as+1967,+had+the+advantage+of+good+warranty+coverage+that+%22didn't+cost+the+owner+his+right+arm,%22+so+most+owners+were+conscious+of+low-cost+car+maintenance. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="16 January 2011">16 January 2011</time>.
- ↑ Dunne, Jim (October 1976), "AMC for '77", Popular Science 209(4): 129, 184, http://books.google.com/books?id=HwEAAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA129&lpg=PA129&dq=AMC+for+'77+Popular+Science. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="16 January 2011">16 January 2011</time>.
- ↑ Ceppos, Rich (October 1977), "AMC for '78 - a V-8 for the Pacer, and now there's Concord", Popular Science 211(4): 98, http://books.google.com/books?id=bQEAAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA98&dq=AMC+Concord. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="16 January 2011">16 January 2011</time>.
- ↑ Sugrue, Thomas J. (2004). "From Motor City to Motor Metropolis: How the Automobile Industry Reshaped Urban America". Automobile in American Life and Society. Retrieved on 16 January 2011.
- ↑ "AMC Liaison", Time. 10 April 1978, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,948087,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 July 2010">29 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ "American Motors Hangs In There", Time. 14 February 1977, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,914814-2,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 July 2010">29 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ Stuart, Reginald (1 April 1978). "Joint Manufacture Planned In Accord By A.M.C., Renault; Distribution Also Covered", p. 27. Retrieved on 9 August 2010.
- ↑ "A.M.C. to Halt Building Standard Transit Buses" (1 June 1978), p. D4. Retrieved on 9 August 2010.
- ↑ "AMC’s Almost Total Recall", Time. 22 May 1978, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,919677,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 July 2010">29 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ "Money Machine", Time. 18 December 1978, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,916539,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 July 2010">29 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ 47.0 47.1 "French Accent", Time. 22 October 1979, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,947525,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 July 2010">29 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ AMX files “Endgame: Renault and Jeep. Retrieved on April 1, 2008.
- ↑ Le Cimetiere Des Autos Oubloees: Renault Rambler (1962-67), The graveyard of forgotten cars. 4 April 2007, http://club.doctissimo.fr/phedor/blog/cimetiere-oubliees-rambler-2264660.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 July 2010">29 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ "AMC’s Charge", Time. 19 November 1979, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,948805,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 July 2010">29 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ Taylor, Alexander; Redman, Christopher; Seaman, Barrett (8 September 1980), "Detroit’s Uphill Battle", Time, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,924408-8,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 July 2010">29 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ Taylor, Alexander; Redman, Christopher (15 December 1980), "Detroit’s Road Is Still Rocky", Time, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,922223-2,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 July 2010">29 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ Peterson, Iver (17 December 1980). "A.M.C. Raises Renault's Stake; A.M.C.-Renault Plan Set", p. D1. Retrieved on 9 August 2010.
- ↑ (1988) International Directory of Company History, Volume 1. St. James Press, 136. ISBN 9780912289106.
- ↑ "1983 10 Best Cars: AMC/Renault Alliance - An Alliance Builds an Alliance", Car and Driver 28(7). January 1983, http://www.caranddriver.com/features/archive/1983_10best_cars-10best_cars/an_alliance_builds_an_alliance_page_2. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="24 November 2010">24 November 2010</time>.
- ↑ 56.0 56.1 56.2 Jones, Geoffrey (2001). "6", Foreign multinationals in the United States: management and performance. Taylor & Francis, 110–112. ISBN 9780415250559. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ 57.0 57.1 Sharf, Stephan (1 May 1996), "Lee Iacocca as I knew him; he was certainly the right man at the right time...", Ward's AutoWorld, http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_lee_iacocca_knew/index.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="24 November 2010">24 November 2010</time>.
- ↑ Olsen, Barney Olsen, Joseph Cabadas, Byron (2002). The American Auto Factory. MotorBooks International, 127. ISBN 9780760310595. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Direct Action". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ "Action Directe (Archived 4 June 2008)". Urban Guerilla. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ "The Gulliver PUK (Pechiney-Ugine-Kuhlmann) Dossier". Sea-us. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ "Short Collective Biography (of) Action Directe Prisoners (Archived)". ABC-GENT files. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ "DaimlerChrysler: The 'What Ifs?'", Ward's AutoWorld. 1 June 1998, http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_daimlerchrysler_ifs/index.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 July 2010">29 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ Morosini, Piero (2005). The Common Glue. Emerald Group, 209. ISBN 9780080446103. Retrieved on 7 August 2010.
- ↑ Diem, William (29 July 2010), "Ghosn Steering Renault-Nissan Alliance Away From National Identities", Ward's AutoWorld.
- ↑ 66.0 66.1 66.2 Higgins, James V. (12 August 2001). "Roy Chapin Jr. mastered how to survive in auto industry".
- ↑ Lawrence, Mike (1996). A to Z of Sports Cars, 1945-1990. MotorBooks/MBI, 1952. ISBN 9781870979818.
- ↑ Rubenstein, James M. (2001). Making and selling cars: innovation and change in the U.S. automotive industry. Johns Hopkins University Press, 221–222. ISBN 9780801867149. Retrieved on 14 November 2010.
- ↑ Abernathy, William J. (1978). The productivity dilemma: roadblock to innovation in the automobile industry. Johns Hopkins University Press, 207–208. ISBN 9780801820816.
- ↑ Cagan, Jonathan (2002). Creating Breakthrough Products: Innovation from Product Planning to Program Approval. Financial Times Press, 11. ISBN 9780139696947. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ Fracassa, Hawke (7 August 2001). "Roy D. Chapin Jr., ex-AMC chairman gambled to save Jeep".
- ↑ Lutz, Robert A. (1999). Guts: The Seven Laws of Business That Made Chrysler the World's Hottest Car Company. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471357650.
- ↑ Lutz, p. 16.
- ↑ 74.0 74.1 Lutz, p. 31.
- ↑ 75.0 75.1 Lutz, p. 33.
- ↑ Thompson, John L. (2010). Strategic Management. Cengage Learning, 504. ISBN 9781408018071. Retrieved on 12 July 2010.
- ↑ Haberberg, Adrian; Alison Rieple (2008). Strategic Management: Theory and Application. Oxford University Press, 778. ISBN 9780199216468. Retrieved on 12 July 2010.
- ↑ (2006) Leading and Managing Creators, Inventors, and Innovators: The Art, Science, and Craft of Fostering Creativity, Triggering Invention, and Catalyzing Innovation. Greenwood Publishing Group, 292. ISBN 9781567204858.
- ↑ Adler, Dennis (2006). Daimler & Benz: The Complete History: The Birth and Evolution of the Mercedes-Benz. HarperCollins, 253. ISBN 9780060890261.
- ↑ Taylor III, Alex (1 April 2002), "Finally GM is looking good", Fortune 145(7): 69–74, http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2002/04/01/320620/index.htm. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="11 July 2010">11 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ Hailig, John A., "To the Edge and Back: Re-Emergence in the Eighties", Automobile Quarterly 32(4): 104.
- ↑ Dunne, Timothy (2 November 2007), "Can Chrysler Rebound in China?", Business Week, http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/nov2007/gb2007112_737100.htm. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 July 2010">29 July 2010</time>.
- ↑ Hubbert, Christopher J. (2006). "The Kelvin Home: Cleveland Heights Leads the Way to: 'a New and Better Way of Living". Cleveland Heights Historical Society. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ "AMC Headquarters Building, 14250 Plymouth Road, Detroit, MI". allpar.com. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ "PROC (Plymouth Road) sale confirmed". Allpar.
- ↑ Ganz, Andrew (15 April 2010). "Chrysler to sell off former AMC headquarters". Left Lane News. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ Center building overview & specifications page from a skyscraper website. Retrieved January 22, 2008.
- ↑ King, Jenny (1 August 1995). "Detroit: not just another pretty face, the Motor City and southeast Michigan offer stability, opportunity for growth". Nreionline.com. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ Toledo Forge fact sheet by DaimlerChrysler manufacturing division. Retrieved January 22, 2008.
- ↑ Brampton (Bramalea) Assembly plant Photo of Brampton plant on the Challenger blog. Retrieved January 22, 2008.
- ↑ Brampton Assembly Plant fact sheet by Chrysler Group LLC. Retrieved April 11, 2010.
- ↑ Outline of Bramalea construction project (with photos of the plant and explanatory text) by infrastructure builder EllisDon Corporation. This firm completed the Brampton Assembly Plant and associated buildings for AMC in September 1987. Retrieved January 22, 2008.
- ↑ Martinez, Nate (1 May 2009), "Chrysler To Close Eight Plants by 2010; 10 Remain For Long Term Growth", Motor Trend, http://wot.motortrend.com/6508327/auto-news/chrysler-to-close-eight-plants-by-2010-10-remain-for-long-term-growth/index.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="24 November 2010">24 November 2010</time>.
- ↑ 94.0 94.1 Summary of AMC Canada operations acquired with the AMC buyout on DaimlerChrysler Canada history page. Retrieved January 22, 2008.
- ↑ 95.0 95.1 95.2 Elliot, Daniel L. (2010). "Early Evart". Evart Michigan DDA & LDFA. Retrieved on =26 February 2011.
- ↑ (1975) Automotive Industries, Volume 153. Chilton, 62.
- ↑ (1973) Michigan manufacturer and financial record, Volumes 131-132. Manufacturer Publications, 16. Retrieved on 26 February 2011.
- ↑ Graves, Beverly (May 1999), "Plating Plastics at Guardian Automotive Trim", Products Finishing Magazine, http://www.pfonline.com/articles/plating-plastics-at-guardian-automotive-trim. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="24 February 2011">24 February 2011</time>.
- ↑ Miller, Patrick (December 2008), "Touching Base: Twenty Years Later", MGA News 22(12): 3, http://www.mgaresearch.com/resources/December20084.pdf. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="24 November 2010">24 November 2010</time>.
- ↑ Davis, Mike (2005–12–29), "Yoostabees: Auto Test Tracks", Business Week, http://www.businessweek.com/autos/content/dec2005/bw20051229_890231.htm. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="2010–03–08">2010–03–08</time>.
- ↑ Allen, Jim (2007). Jeep 4x4 Performance Handbook. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing, 101. ISBN 9780760326879.
- ↑ "Holmes Foundry: Sarnia, Ontario". holmesfoundry at hotmail period com. Retrieved on 2010–05–06.
- ↑ "American Newsletter", The Foundry (Institute of British Foundrymen) 129. 1970.
- ↑ Stokes, Glenn (November 2005), "Dump trailer liners used in decommissioned foundry clean-up project", Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, http://www.esemag.com/1105/hqn.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="2010–05–06">2010–05–06</time>.
- ↑ 105.0 105.1 Ward, James Arthur (1995). The Fall of the Packard Motor Car Company. Stanford University Press, 124. ISBN 9780804724579. Retrieved on 2010–05–06.
- ↑ "Management: Crackdown in Milwaukee", Time. 1961–12–01, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,938842,00.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="2010–05–06">2010–05–06</time>.
- ↑ Chris DellaMea's "Coalfields Of The Appalachian Mountains". "Union Stamping and Assembly plant, photo of former AMC stamping plant". Retrieved on 26 February 2011.
- ↑ "Trademark". Tess2.uspto.gov. Retrieved on 2010-07-01.
- ↑ "Trademark". Tess2.uspto.gov. Retrieved on 2010-07-01.
- ↑ "American Motors Corporation Home Page". Web.archive.org (2005-02-13). Archived from the original on 2005-02-13. Retrieved on 2010-07-01.
- ↑ "Trademark". Tess2.uspto.gov. Retrieved on 2010-07-01.
- ↑ "Trademark". Tess2.uspto.gov. Retrieved on 26 February 2011.
- ↑ Zuehlke, Jeffrey (2007). Classic Cars. Lerner Publications, 18. ISBN 9780822559269.
- ↑ Litwin (1 January 2007), "The Top 21 Hottest Collector Cars", Hemmings Classic Car, http://www.hemmings.com/hcc/stories/2007/01/01/hmn_feature5.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="16 January 2011">16 January 2011</time>.
- ↑ Blackwell, Rusty (February 2009), "Collectible Classic: 1968-70 AMC Javelin", Automobile Magazine, http://www.automobilemag.com/features/collectible_classic/0706_1968_amc_javelin/index.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="24 November 2010">24 November 2010</time>.
- ↑ Nerad (2009). "It doesn’t take a mint to buy one of tomorrow’s top collector cars". Driving Today. Retrieved on 24 November 2010.
- ↑ 117.0 117.1 Mays, James C. (2006). The Savvy Guide to Buying Collector Cars at Auction. Indy-Tech Publishing, 77. ISBN 9780790613222.
- ↑ Mays, pp. 37–38.
- ↑ Mays, pp. 39–40.
- ↑ Koch, Jeff (1 January 2008), "Dollar-A-Pound Collectibles", Hemmings Classic Car 4(1): 14–19, http://www.hemmings.com/hcc/stories/2008/01/01/hmn_feature1.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="16 January 2011">16 January 2011</time>.
- ↑ 121.0 121.1 Kunz, Bruce (3 December 2007). "1970 AMC Gremlin- America's first "sub" compact car". Retrieved on 16 January 2011.
- ↑ Palmeri, Christopher (23 August 2007), "Revenge of the Nerd Cars", Business Week, http://www.businessweek.com/autos/content/aug2007/bw20070823_780539.htm. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="24 November 2010">24 November 2010</time>.
- ↑ Stanford, Steve (February 2009), "AMC Concept Cars - The Return Of AMC! It's The Biggest Story Of The Year, And No One Saw It Coming", Hot Rod Magazine, http://www.hotrod.com/featuredvehicles/hrdp_0804_amc_concept_cars/index.html. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="24 November 2010">24 November 2010</time>.
- Conde, John A. (1987). The American Motors Family Album. American Motors Corporation. OCLC 3185581.
- (1988) International Directory of Company History, Volume 1. St. James Press. ISBN 9780912289106.
- Foster, Patrick (2004). AMC Cars: 1954-1987, An Illustrated History. Motorbooks International. ISBN 9781583881125.
- Foster, Patrick (1993). The Last Independent. Motorbooks International. ISBN 9780873412407.
- Foster, Patrick (1996). The Metropolitan Story. Krause Publications. ISBN 9780873414593.
- Foster, Patrick (1998). The Nash Styling Sketchbook. Olde Milford Press. ISBN 9780966201901.
- (1987) The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975. Krause Publications. ISBN 9780873410960.
- (1993) The Standard Catalog of American Motors 1902-1987. Krause Publications. ISBN 9780873412322.
- Lutz, Robert A. (1999). Guts: The Seven Laws of Business That Made Chrysler the World's Hottest Car Company. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471357650.
- Mann, Jim (1997). Beijing Jeep: A Case Study of Western Business in China. Perseus Publishing. ISBN 9780813333274.
- Mays, James C. (2001). Rambler Canada: The Little Company That Could. Syam Publications. ISBN 9780968586471.
- Mitchell, Larry (1994). AMC Buyers Guide. Motorbooks International. ISBN 9780879388911.
- Swygert, Francis G. (1992). The Compact Chronicles - A Complete History of American Motors Corporation 1954-1987 (With Restoration Information). FARNA Systems Publishing.
- Swygert, Francis G. (1996-current year). American Motors Cars Magazine (formerly published as "American Independent Magazine"). FARNA Systems Publishing.
- Zinn (2002). AMX Photo Archive: From Concept to Reality. Iconographix. ISBN 9781583880623.
- The American Motors Owners Association
- The AMC Rambler Club
- IMCDB: AMC vehicles in movies & TV shows
- AMC in America
- AMC photo gallery