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|location = Southfield, Michigan, USA
 
|location = Southfield, Michigan, USA
 
|industry = [[Automotive industry|Automotive]]
 
|industry = [[Automotive industry|Automotive]]
|key_people = George W. Mason<br/>George W. Romney<br/>Roy Abernethy<br/>Roy D. Chapin Jr.<br/>Richard A. Teague
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|key_people = [[George W. Mason]]<br/>[[George W. Romney]]<br/>[[Roy Abernethy]]<br/>[[Roy D. Chapin Jr.]]<br/>[[Richard A. Teague]]
 
|products = Automobiles<br/>Military vehicles<br/>Buses and delivery vehicles<br/>Sport utility vehicles<br/>Major home appliances<br/>Commercial refrigeration<br/>Lawn care products
 
|products = Automobiles<br/>Military vehicles<br/>Buses and delivery vehicles<br/>Sport utility vehicles<br/>Major home appliances<br/>Commercial refrigeration<br/>Lawn care products
 
|num_employees =
 
|num_employees =
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'''American Motors Corporation''' (AMC) was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of [[Nash-Kelvinator Corporation]] and [[Hudson Motor Car Company]]. At the time, it was the largest corporate merger in U.S. history.
 
'''American Motors Corporation''' (AMC) was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of [[Nash-Kelvinator Corporation]] and [[Hudson Motor Car Company]]. At the time, it was the largest corporate merger in U.S. history.
   
George W. Mason was the architect of the merger to reap benefits from the strengths of the two firms to battle the much larger "[[Big Three (automobile manufacturers)|Big Three]]" automakers ([[General Motors]], [[Ford Motor Company|Ford]] and [[Chrysler]]). Within a year George W. Romney took over, reorganized the company and focused the future of AMC on a new small car line.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,861782,00.html | title=Gamble on the Rambler |magazine=Time | date=19 December 1955 |accessdate=8 February 2011}}</ref> By the end of 1957 the original Nash and Hudson brands were completely phased out. The company struggled at first, but sales of the Rambler took off. Its cars were frequent winners in '''Mobil Economy Run'''s<ref>{{cite journal |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,864627,00.html |title=Autos: Victory for Rambler |journal=Time |date=April 20, 1959 |accessdate=8 February 2011}}</ref> and Ramblers became America's third most popular car during the early 1960s.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1965-1966-rambler-ambassador1.htm| title=1965–1966 Rambler Ambassador | author=Auto Editors of ''Consumer Guide'' |publisher=auto.howstuffworks.com|date=23 October 2007 |accessdate=8 February 2011}}</ref> In the mid-1960s, under the leadership of Roy Abernethy, focused AMC on larger and more profitable car lines to move away from the [[Rambler (automobile)|Rambler]]'s perceived "negative" compact car image. However, AMC's deteriorating financial and market position put Roy D. Chapin, Jr. in charge to revitalize the company. Prices and costs were cut while new and more "sporty" automobiles were introduced. AMC became known for their new, popular muscle car offerings beginning in 1968 with the [[AMC Javelin|Javelin]] and [[AMC AMX|AMX]]. Designer Richard A. Teague developed many vehicles from common stampings, resulting in cost savings for a company that often lacked operating capital.
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George W. Mason was the architect of the merger to reap benefits from the strengths of the two firms to battle the much larger "[[Big Three (automobile manufacturers)|Big Three]]" automakers ([[General Motors]], [[Ford Motor Company|Ford]] and [[Chrysler]]). Within a year George W. Romney took over, reorganized the company and focused the future of AMC on a new small car line.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,861782,00.html | title=Gamble on the Rambler |magazine=Time | date=19 December 1955 |accessdate=8 February 2011}}</ref> By the end of 1957 the original Nash and Hudson brands were completely phased out. The company struggled at first, but sales of the Rambler took off. Its cars were frequent winners in [[Mobil Economy Run]]s<ref>{{cite journal |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,864627,00.html |title=Autos: Victory for Rambler |journal=Time |date=April 20, 1959 |accessdate=8 February 2011}}</ref> and Ramblers became America's third most popular car during the early 1960s.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1965-1966-rambler-ambassador1.htm| title=1965–1966 Rambler Ambassador | author=Auto Editors of ''Consumer Guide'' |publisher=auto.howstuffworks.com|date=23 October 2007 |accessdate=8 February 2011}}</ref> In the mid-1960s, under the leadership of [[Roy Abernethy]], focused AMC on larger and more profitable car lines to move away from the [[Rambler (automobile)|Rambler]]'s perceived "negative" [[compact car]] image. However, AMC's deteriorating financial and market position put Roy D. Chapin, Jr. in charge to revitalize the company. Prices and costs were cut while new and more "sporty" automobiles were introduced. AMC became known for their new, popular [[muscle car]] offerings beginning in 1968 with the [[AMC Javelin|Javelin]] and [[AMC AMX|AMX]]. Designer Richard A. Teague developed many vehicles from common stampings, resulting in cost savings for a company that often lacked operating capital.
   
 
AMC purchased Kaiser's [[Jeep]] utility vehicle operations in 1970 as a complement to the company's existing passenger car business. Beginning in the early 1970s, they moved towards an all-new design of compact cars based on the [[AMC Hornet|Hornet]], including the Hornet itself and the [[AMC Gremlin|Gremlin]]. Other new models in the 1970s included the radically styled [[AMC Matador|Matador]] and [[AMC Pacer|Pacer]]. However, as costs mounted, AMC reduced their overall line and began to focus almost exclusively on their Hornet-based offerings and Jeep line. By the late-1970s new lines, such as the [[AMC Spirit|Spirit]], and [[AMC Concord|Concord]], were variations of the Hornet's [[automobile platform|platform]]. The company continued to innovate existing designs introducing in 1979 the 4-wheel-drive [[AMC Eagle]]. The Eagle is widely recognized as one of the first true [[Crossover (automobile)|crossovers]].
 
AMC purchased Kaiser's [[Jeep]] utility vehicle operations in 1970 as a complement to the company's existing passenger car business. Beginning in the early 1970s, they moved towards an all-new design of compact cars based on the [[AMC Hornet|Hornet]], including the Hornet itself and the [[AMC Gremlin|Gremlin]]. Other new models in the 1970s included the radically styled [[AMC Matador|Matador]] and [[AMC Pacer|Pacer]]. However, as costs mounted, AMC reduced their overall line and began to focus almost exclusively on their Hornet-based offerings and Jeep line. By the late-1970s new lines, such as the [[AMC Spirit|Spirit]], and [[AMC Concord|Concord]], were variations of the Hornet's [[automobile platform|platform]]. The company continued to innovate existing designs introducing in 1979 the 4-wheel-drive [[AMC Eagle]]. The Eagle is widely recognized as one of the first true [[Crossover (automobile)|crossovers]].
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==Formation==
 
==Formation==
In January 1954, [[Nash-Kelvinator Corporation]] began acquisition of the [[Hudson Motor Car Company]] (in what was called a merger) to form '''American Motors'''. The deal was a straight stock transfer (three shares of Hudson listed at 11⅛, for two shares of AMC and one share of Nash-Kelvinator listed at 17⅜, for one share of AMC) and finalized in the spring of 1954, forming the fourth-biggest auto company in the U.S. with assets of US$355 million (US${{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|355000000|1954}}}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}} dollars{{inflation-fn|US}}) and more than $100 million inorking capital]].<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,823270,00.html|title=Answer from the Hustlers|journal=Time|date=25 January 1954|accessdate=12 July 2010}}</ref> The new company retained Hudson CEO A.E. Barit as a consultant and he took a seat on the Board of Directors. Nash's George W. Mason became President and CEO.
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In January 1954, [[Nash-Kelvinator Corporation]] began acquisition of the [[Hudson Motor Car Company]] (in what was called a [[Mergers and acquisitions|merger]]) to form '''American Motors'''. The deal was a straight stock transfer (three shares of Hudson listed at 11⅛, for two shares of AMC and one share of Nash-Kelvinator listed at 17⅜, for one share of AMC) and finalized in the spring of 1954, forming the fourth-biggest auto company in the U.S. with assets of US$355 million (US${{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|355000000|1954}}}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}} dollars{{inflation-fn|US}}) and more than $100 million inorking capital]].<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,823270,00.html|title=Answer from the Hustlers|journal=Time|date=25 January 1954|accessdate=12 July 2010}}</ref> The new company retained Hudson CEO A.E. Barit as a consultant and he took a seat on the Board of Directors. Nash's George W. Mason became President and CEO.
 
[[File:AMC-post-1.jpg|upright|thumb|right|American Motors dealership sign, ca. 1970]]
 
[[File:AMC-post-1.jpg|upright|thumb|right|American Motors dealership sign, ca. 1970]]
   
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Sales of Ramblers soared in the late 1950s in part because American Motors had sponsored the hugely popular Disneyland television show and was also an exhibitor at the Disneyland theme park in Anaheim, California. George Romney himself pitched the Rambler product in the television commercials.
 
Sales of Ramblers soared in the late 1950s in part because American Motors had sponsored the hugely popular Disneyland television show and was also an exhibitor at the Disneyland theme park in Anaheim, California. George Romney himself pitched the Rambler product in the television commercials.
   
While the "Big Three" introduced ever-larger cars, AMC followed a "dinosaur-fighter" strategy. [[George W. Romney]]'s leadership focused the company on the compact car, a fuel-efficient vehicle 20 years before there was a real need for them.<ref>{{cite book|last=Meyers|first=Gerald C.|year= 1986|title=When it hits the fan: Managing the nine crises of business|publisher=Houghton Mifflin| isbn=9780395411711}}</ref> This gave Romney a high profile in the media. Two core strategic factors came into play: (1) the use of shared components in AMC products and (2) a refusal to participate in the Big Three's restyling race. This cost-control policy helped Rambler develop a reputation as solid economy cars. Company officials were confident in the changing market and in 1959 announced a $10 million (US${{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|10000000|1959}}}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}} dollars{{inflation-fn|US}}) expansion of its Kenosha complex (to increase annual straight-time capacity from 300,000 to 440,000 cars).<ref name=rvm15>{{cite journal|url= http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_rearview_mirror_15/index.html|title=Rearview mirror|journal= Ward's AutoWorld|date=1 February 2000|accessdate=12 July 2010}}</ref> A letter to shareholders in 1959 claimed that the introduction of new compact cars by AMC's large domestic competitors (for the 1960 model year) "signals the end of big-car domination in the U.S." and that AMC predicts small-car sales in the U.S. may reach 3 million units by 1963.<ref name=rvm15/>
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While the "Big Three" introduced ever-larger cars, AMC followed a "dinosaur-fighter" strategy. [[George W. Romney]]'s leadership focused the company on the compact car, a fuel-efficient vehicle 20 years before there was a real need for them.<ref>{{cite book|last=Meyers|first=Gerald C.|year= 1986|title=When it hits the fan: Managing the nine crises of business|publisher=Houghton Mifflin| isbn=9780395411711}}</ref> This gave Romney a high profile in the media. Two core [[Critical success factor|strategic factors]] came into play: (1) the use of shared components in AMC products and (2) a refusal to participate in the Big Three's restyling race. This cost-control policy helped Rambler develop a reputation as solid economy cars. Company officials were confident in the changing market and in 1959 announced a $10 million (US${{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|10000000|1959}}}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}} dollars{{inflation-fn|US}}) expansion of its Kenosha complex (to increase annual straight-time capacity from 300,000 to 440,000 cars).<ref name=rvm15>{{cite journal|url= http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_rearview_mirror_15/index.html|title=Rearview mirror|journal= Ward's AutoWorld|date=1 February 2000|accessdate=12 July 2010}}</ref> A letter to shareholders in 1959 claimed that the introduction of new compact cars by AMC's large domestic competitors (for the 1960 model year) "signals the end of big-car domination in the U.S." and that AMC predicts small-car sales in the U.S. may reach 3 million units by 1963.<ref name=rvm15/>
   
 
American Motors was also beginning to experiment in non-[[gasoline]] powered automobiles. On April 1, 1959, AMC and Sonotone Corporation announced a joint research effort to consider producing an [[electric car]] that was to be powered by a "self-charging" battery.<ref>{{cite journal|url= http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_rearview_mirror_13/index.html|title=Rearview Mirror|journal= Ward's AutoWorld|date=1 April 2000|accessdate=12 July 2010}}</ref> Sonotone had the technology for making sintered plate [[Nickel-cadmium battery|nickel-cadmium batteries]] that can be recharged very rapidly and are lighter than a typical automobile [[lead-acid battery]].<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.roger-russell.com/sonopg/sononst.htm|last=Russell|first=Roger|title=Sonotone History: Tubes, Hi-Fi Electronics, Tape heads and Nicad Batteries|publisher=Sonotone Corporation History| accessdate=12 July 2010}}</ref>
 
American Motors was also beginning to experiment in non-[[gasoline]] powered automobiles. On April 1, 1959, AMC and Sonotone Corporation announced a joint research effort to consider producing an [[electric car]] that was to be powered by a "self-charging" battery.<ref>{{cite journal|url= http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_rearview_mirror_13/index.html|title=Rearview Mirror|journal= Ward's AutoWorld|date=1 April 2000|accessdate=12 July 2010}}</ref> Sonotone had the technology for making sintered plate [[Nickel-cadmium battery|nickel-cadmium batteries]] that can be recharged very rapidly and are lighter than a typical automobile [[lead-acid battery]].<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.roger-russell.com/sonopg/sononst.htm|last=Russell|first=Roger|title=Sonotone History: Tubes, Hi-Fi Electronics, Tape heads and Nicad Batteries|publisher=Sonotone Corporation History| accessdate=12 July 2010}}</ref>
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In 1964, the Classic was equipped with standard dual reclining front seats nearly a decade before the Big Three offered them as options. [[Bendix Corporation|Bendix]] [[disc brake]]s were made optional on the Classic in 1965, while the Big Three didn't offer them until 1969 on many models.
 
In 1964, the Classic was equipped with standard dual reclining front seats nearly a decade before the Big Three offered them as options. [[Bendix Corporation|Bendix]] [[disc brake]]s were made optional on the Classic in 1965, while the Big Three didn't offer them until 1969 on many models.
   
In the early part of the decade, sales were strong, thanks in no small part to the company's history of building small cars, which came into vogue in 1961.<ref name="Flory133">{{cite book|last =Flory, Jr.|first=J. "Kelly"|title=American Cars, 1960-1972: Every Model, Year by Year|publisher= McFarland & Company|year=2004|page=133|isbn=9780786412730}}</ref> In both 1960 and 1961, Ramblers ranked in third place among domestic automobile sales,<ref>{{cite web|url= http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1965-1966-rambler-ambassador1.htm|title=1965-1966 Rambler Ambassador| author=Auto Editors of ''Consumer Guide''|publisher=HowStuffWorks.com|date=23 October 2007| accessdate=12 July 2010}}</ref> up from third on the strength of small-car sales, even in the face of a lot of new competition.<ref name="Flory133"/> Romney's strategic focus was very successful as reflected in the firm's healthy profits year after year. The company became completely debt-free. The financial success allowed the company to reach an agreement on August 26, 1961 with the United Auto Workers for a profit sharing plan that was new in the automobile industry.<ref name="stetson">{{cite news|last=Stetson|first=Damon|title=American Motors And U.A.W. Agree To Share Profits|url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0C12F7395D1B728DDDAE0A94D0405B818AF1D3&scp=50&sq=American%20Motors%20Corporation&st=cse|accessdate=24 November 2010|newspaper=The New York Times| date=27 August 1961|page=1}}</ref> Its new three-year labor contract also included generous annual improvement pay increases, as well as automatic cost-of-living raises.<ref name="stetson"/> However, in 1962, Romney resigned to run for Governor of Michigan. His replacement was Roy Abernethy, AMC's successful sales executive.
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In the early part of the decade, sales were strong, thanks in no small part to the company's history of building small cars, which came into vogue in 1961.<ref name="Flory133">{{cite book|last =Flory, Jr.|first=J. "Kelly"|title=American Cars, 1960-1972: Every Model, Year by Year|publisher= McFarland & Company|year=2004|page=133|isbn=9780786412730}}</ref> In both 1960 and 1961, Ramblers ranked in third place among domestic automobile sales,<ref>{{cite web|url= http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1965-1966-rambler-ambassador1.htm|title=1965-1966 Rambler Ambassador| author=Auto Editors of ''Consumer Guide''|publisher=HowStuffWorks.com|date=23 October 2007| accessdate=12 July 2010}}</ref> up from third on the strength of small-car sales, even in the face of a lot of new competition.<ref name="Flory133"/> Romney's [[Strategic management|strategic focus]] was very successful as reflected in the firm's healthy profits year after year. The company became completely debt-free. The financial success allowed the company to reach an agreement on August 26, 1961 with the [[United Auto Workers]] for a [[profit sharing]] plan that was new in the automobile industry.<ref name="stetson">{{cite news|last=Stetson|first=Damon|title=American Motors And U.A.W. Agree To Share Profits|url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0C12F7395D1B728DDDAE0A94D0405B818AF1D3&scp=50&sq=American%20Motors%20Corporation&st=cse|accessdate=24 November 2010|newspaper=The New York Times| date=27 August 1961|page=1}}</ref> Its new three-year labor contract also included generous annual improvement pay increases, as well as automatic cost-of-living raises.<ref name="stetson"/> However, in 1962, Romney resigned to run for [[Governor]] of [[Michigan]]. His replacement was [[Roy Abernethy]], AMC's successful sales executive.
   
 
Abernethy believed that AMC's reputation of building reliable economical cars could be translated into a new strategy that could follow AMC buyers as they traded up into larger, more expensive vehicles.<ref>{{cite news|last=Jones|first=David R.|title=American Motors Putting Stress on Power and Luxury|url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20616F63A5B1B728DDDAE0894D1405B848AF1D3&scp=18&sq=Roy%20Abernethy%20AMC&st=cse|accessdate=8 August 2010|newspaper=The New York Times|date=7 September 1964|page=6}}</ref> The first cars bearing his signature were the 1965 models. These were a longer [[AMC Ambassador|Ambassador]] series and new [[convertible]]s for the larger models. During mid-year a [[fastback]], called the [[Rambler Marlin|Marlin]], was added. Rather than competing directly with [[Ford Mustang|Ford's new pony-car]], AMC's "family-sized" car emphasized [[Personal luxury car|personal-luxury]]. Abernethy also called for the de-emphasis of the Rambler brand. The 1966 Marlin and Ambassador lost their Rambler nameplates, and were badged as "American Motors" products. The new models shared fewer parts among each other and were more expensive to build.
 
Abernethy believed that AMC's reputation of building reliable economical cars could be translated into a new strategy that could follow AMC buyers as they traded up into larger, more expensive vehicles.<ref>{{cite news|last=Jones|first=David R.|title=American Motors Putting Stress on Power and Luxury|url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20616F63A5B1B728DDDAE0894D1405B848AF1D3&scp=18&sq=Roy%20Abernethy%20AMC&st=cse|accessdate=8 August 2010|newspaper=The New York Times|date=7 September 1964|page=6}}</ref> The first cars bearing his signature were the 1965 models. These were a longer [[AMC Ambassador|Ambassador]] series and new [[convertible]]s for the larger models. During mid-year a [[fastback]], called the [[Rambler Marlin|Marlin]], was added. Rather than competing directly with [[Ford Mustang|Ford's new pony-car]], AMC's "family-sized" car emphasized [[Personal luxury car|personal-luxury]]. Abernethy also called for the de-emphasis of the Rambler brand. The 1966 Marlin and Ambassador lost their Rambler nameplates, and were badged as "American Motors" products. The new models shared fewer parts among each other and were more expensive to build.
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American Motors did not have its own electric car program as the Big Three, and after some negotiation, a contract was drawn in 1967 with Gulton Industries to develop a new battery based on [[Lithium battery|lithium]] and a speed controller designed by Victor Wouk.<ref name=Wouk>{{cite journal|url=http://pr.caltech.edu/periodicals/EandS/articles/LXVII3/Wouk%20Feature.pdf|last= Goodstein|first=Judith|year=2004|title=Godfather of the Hybrid|journal=Engineering & Science| publisher=California Institute of Technology|volume=LXVII|issue=3|accessdate=12 July 2010}}</ref> A nickel-cadmium battery powered 1969 Rambler station wagon demonstrated the power systems that according to the scientist was a "wonderful car".<ref name=Wouk/> This was also the start of other "plug-in"-type experimental AMC vehicles developed with Gulton — the [[Amitron]] and the [[Electron (vehicle)|Electron]].
 
American Motors did not have its own electric car program as the Big Three, and after some negotiation, a contract was drawn in 1967 with Gulton Industries to develop a new battery based on [[Lithium battery|lithium]] and a speed controller designed by Victor Wouk.<ref name=Wouk>{{cite journal|url=http://pr.caltech.edu/periodicals/EandS/articles/LXVII3/Wouk%20Feature.pdf|last= Goodstein|first=Judith|year=2004|title=Godfather of the Hybrid|journal=Engineering & Science| publisher=California Institute of Technology|volume=LXVII|issue=3|accessdate=12 July 2010}}</ref> A nickel-cadmium battery powered 1969 Rambler station wagon demonstrated the power systems that according to the scientist was a "wonderful car".<ref name=Wouk/> This was also the start of other "plug-in"-type experimental AMC vehicles developed with Gulton — the [[Amitron]] and the [[Electron (vehicle)|Electron]].
   
Abernethy was ousted from AMC on January 9, 1967 and damage control fell to the new CEO, Roy D. Chapin Jr. (son of Hudson Motors founder Roy D. Chapin).<ref>{{cite news| title=American Motors Picks Chapin For Chief as 2 Men Step Down; Evans and Abernethy Drop Out of Management Team Luneburg Is President|url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00712F93554117B93C2A8178AD85F438685F9&scp=1&sq=Roy%20Abernethy%20AMC&st=cse|accessdate=8 August 2010|newspaper=The New York Times|date=10 January 1967|page=53}}</ref> Chapin quickly instituted changes to AMC's offerings and tried to regain market share by focusing on younger demographic markets.<ref>{{cite news|last=Hofmann|first=Paul|title=A Younger Management At Rambler Maker; Rambler Maker Accenting Youth|url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F40912FE3B5F137A93C3A8178AD85F438685F9&scp=27&sq=Roy%20Abernethy%20AMC&st=cse|accessdate=8 August 2010|newspaper=The New York Times|date=11 January 1967|page=65}}</ref> Chapin's first decision was to cut the price of the Rambler to within [[United States dollar|US$]]200 of the basic [[Volkswagen Beetle]]. Innovative marketing ideas included making [[air conditioning]] standard on all 1968 Ambassador models (available as a delete option). This made AMC the first U.S. automaker to make air conditioning standard equipment on a line of their cars, beating out even luxury makes such as [[Lincoln (automobile)|Lincoln]], [[Imperial (automobile)|Imperial]], and [[Cadillac]].
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Abernethy was ousted from AMC on January 9, 1967 and damage control fell to the new CEO, [[Roy D. Chapin, Jr.|Roy D. Chapin Jr.]] (son of Hudson Motors founder [[Roy D. Chapin]]).<ref>{{cite news| title=American Motors Picks Chapin For Chief as 2 Men Step Down; Evans and Abernethy Drop Out of Management Team Luneburg Is President|url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00712F93554117B93C2A8178AD85F438685F9&scp=1&sq=Roy%20Abernethy%20AMC&st=cse|accessdate=8 August 2010|newspaper=The New York Times|date=10 January 1967|page=53}}</ref> Chapin quickly instituted changes to AMC's offerings and tried to regain market share by focusing on younger demographic markets.<ref>{{cite news|last=Hofmann|first=Paul|title=A Younger Management At Rambler Maker; Rambler Maker Accenting Youth|url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F40912FE3B5F137A93C3A8178AD85F438685F9&scp=27&sq=Roy%20Abernethy%20AMC&st=cse|accessdate=8 August 2010|newspaper=The New York Times|date=11 January 1967|page=65}}</ref> Chapin's first decision was to cut the price of the Rambler to within [[United States dollar|US$]]200 of the basic [[Volkswagen Beetle]]. Innovative [[marketing]] ideas included making [[air conditioning]] standard on all 1968 Ambassador models (available as a delete option). This made AMC the first U.S. automaker to make air conditioning standard equipment on a line of their cars, beating out even luxury makes such as [[Lincoln (automobile)|Lincoln]], [[Imperial (automobile)|Imperial]], and [[Cadillac]].
   
 
The company also introduced exciting entries for the decade's muscle car boom, most notably the [[AMC AMX|AMX]]; while the [[AMC Javelin|Javelin]] served as the company's entrant into the sporty "pony car" market created by the [[Ford Mustang]]. Additional operating cash was derived in 1968 through the sale of [[Kelvinator]] Appliance, once one of the firm's core operating units.
 
The company also introduced exciting entries for the decade's muscle car boom, most notably the [[AMC AMX|AMX]]; while the [[AMC Javelin|Javelin]] served as the company's entrant into the sporty "pony car" market created by the [[Ford Mustang]]. Additional operating cash was derived in 1968 through the sale of [[Kelvinator]] Appliance, once one of the firm's core operating units.
   
The Rambler brand was completely dropped after the 1969 model year in North America, although it continued to be used in several overseas markets as either a model or brand name, with the last use in Mexico in 1983. From 1970, "AMC" was the brand used for all American Motors passenger cars; and all vehicles from that date bore the AMC name and the new corporate logo. However, the names "American Motors" and "AMC" were used interchangeably in corporate literature well into the 1980s. The branding issue was further complicated when the company's [[AMC Eagle|Eagle]] [[four-wheel drive|all-wheel drive]] passenger cars were marketed as the "American Eagle" in the 1980s.
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The Rambler brand was completely dropped after the 1969 model year in North America, although it continued to be used in several overseas markets as either a model or brand name, with the last use in [[Mexico]] in 1983. From 1970, "AMC" was the brand used for all American Motors passenger cars; and all vehicles from that date bore the AMC name and the new corporate logo. However, the names "American Motors" and "AMC" were used interchangeably in corporate literature well into the 1980s. The branding issue was further complicated when the company's [[AMC Eagle|Eagle]] [[four-wheel drive|all-wheel drive]] passenger cars were marketed as the "American Eagle" in the 1980s.
   
 
Chapin also expanded American Motors product line in 1970, through the purchase of the Kaiser-Jeep Corporation (formerly [[Willys|Willys-Overland]]) from [[Henry J. Kaiser|Kaiser Industries]]. This added the iconic [[Jeep]] brand of light trucks and SUVs, as well as Kaiser-Jeep's lucrative government contracts — notably the [[M151 MUTT]] line of military Jeeps and the DJ-Series postal Jeeps. AMC also expanded its international network. The military and special products business was reconstituted as American Motors General Products Division, later reorganized as [[AM General]].
 
Chapin also expanded American Motors product line in 1970, through the purchase of the Kaiser-Jeep Corporation (formerly [[Willys|Willys-Overland]]) from [[Henry J. Kaiser|Kaiser Industries]]. This added the iconic [[Jeep]] brand of light trucks and SUVs, as well as Kaiser-Jeep's lucrative government contracts — notably the [[M151 MUTT]] line of military Jeeps and the DJ-Series postal Jeeps. AMC also expanded its international network. The military and special products business was reconstituted as American Motors General Products Division, later reorganized as [[AM General]].
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With the Hornet and later [[AMC Gremlin|Gremlin]] AMC shared [[Automobile platform|platforms]]. The Gremlin, the first North American-built subcompact, sold more than 670,000 units from 1970-1978. The Hornet became AMC's best-selling passenger car since the Rambler Classic, with more than 860,000 units sold by the time production ended in 1977.
 
With the Hornet and later [[AMC Gremlin|Gremlin]] AMC shared [[Automobile platform|platforms]]. The Gremlin, the first North American-built subcompact, sold more than 670,000 units from 1970-1978. The Hornet became AMC's best-selling passenger car since the Rambler Classic, with more than 860,000 units sold by the time production ended in 1977.
   
The new mid-sized [[AMC Matador]] replaced the Rebel in 1971, using an advertising campaign that asked, "What's a Matador?"<ref>"Road Test: American Motors Matador X" ''Road & Track'' magazine, March 1974. See: [http://www.javelinamx.com/JavHome/articles/matx-rt.htm the article], retrieved December 23, 2007.</ref> In 1972, AMC won the tender for Los Angeles Police Department cruisers, and Matadors were used by the department from 1972 to 1975, replacing the [[Plymouth Satellite]]. American Motors supplied Mark VII Productions owner Jack Webb with two Matadors for use in his popular television series ''Adam-12'', increasing the cars' public profile.
+
The new mid-sized [[AMC Matador]] replaced the Rebel in 1971, using an advertising campaign that asked, "What's a Matador?"<ref>"Road Test: American Motors Matador X" [[Road & Track]] magazine, March 1974. See: [http://www.javelinamx.com/JavHome/articles/matx-rt.htm the article], retrieved December 23, 2007.</ref> In 1972, AMC won the tender for Los Angeles Police Department cruisers, and Matadors were used by the department from 1972 to 1975, replacing the [[Plymouth Satellite]]. American Motors supplied Mark VII Productions owner Jack Webb with two Matadors for use in his popular television series ''Adam-12'', increasing the cars' public profile.
   
 
In 1973, AMC signed a licensing agreement with [[Curtiss-Wright]] to build [[Wankel engine]]s for cars and Jeeps.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_rearview_mirror_15/|author=Ward's Auto World Staff|title=Rearview mirror|journal=Ward's Auto World|date=1 February 2000|accessdate=16 January 2011}}</ref>
 
In 1973, AMC signed a licensing agreement with [[Curtiss-Wright]] to build [[Wankel engine]]s for cars and Jeeps.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_rearview_mirror_15/|author=Ward's Auto World Staff|title=Rearview mirror|journal=Ward's Auto World|date=1 February 2000|accessdate=16 January 2011}}</ref>
   
Starting in 1974, the Matador sedan and station wagon were mildly refreshed, with new boxier front ends. The Matador two-door hardtop, known as the "flying brick" due to its poor aerodynamics in NASCAR competition, was replaced at great cost with a sleek, smoothly shaped, and radically styled two-door coupe. The model received praise for its design, including "Best Styled Car of 1974" by ''Car and Driver'' magazine,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1974-1978-amc-matador1.htm|author=Auto Editors of ''Consumer Guide''|title=1974-1978 AMC Matador|date=26 October 2007|accessdate=16 January 2011}}</ref> customer satisfaction,<ref>{{cite journal|last=Lamm|first=Michael|title=Styling is a knockout, but so is the low roofline!|journal=Popular Mechanics|month=April|year=1974|volume=141|issue=4|pages=98–101|url= http://books.google.com/?id=odQDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA98&dq=Matador+styling+is+a+knockout|accessdate=16 January 2011}}</ref> and sold almost 100,000 coupes over a five-year period.<ref>{{cite web|last=Bond|first=Craig|title=Matador Coupe History 1974-1978|url=http://www.matadorcoupe.com/history.htm|accessdate=16 January 2011}}</ref> The Matador Coupe shared few components with the Matador sedan and station wagon, other than suspension, drive train, some trim, and interior parts.
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Starting in 1974, the Matador sedan and station wagon were mildly refreshed, with new boxier front ends. The Matador two-door hardtop, known as the "flying brick" due to its poor aerodynamics in [[NASCAR]] competition, was replaced at great cost with a sleek, smoothly shaped, and radically styled two-door coupe. The model received praise for its design, including "Best Styled Car of 1974" by ''[[Car and Driver]]'' magazine,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1974-1978-amc-matador1.htm|author=Auto Editors of ''Consumer Guide''|title=1974-1978 AMC Matador|date=26 October 2007|accessdate=16 January 2011}}</ref> customer satisfaction,<ref>{{cite journal|last=Lamm|first=Michael|title=Styling is a knockout, but so is the low roofline!|journal=Popular Mechanics|month=April|year=1974|volume=141|issue=4|pages=98–101|url= http://books.google.com/?id=odQDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA98&dq=Matador+styling+is+a+knockout|accessdate=16 January 2011}}</ref> and sold almost 100,000 coupes over a five-year period.<ref>{{cite web|last=Bond|first=Craig|title=Matador Coupe History 1974-1978|url=http://www.matadorcoupe.com/history.htm|accessdate=16 January 2011}}</ref> The Matador Coupe shared few components with the Matador sedan and station wagon, other than suspension, drive train, some trim, and interior parts.
   
 
The Ambassador was redesigned and stretched {{convert|7|in|mm|0}} to became the biggest ever—just as the 1973 [[1973 oil crisis|Arab Oil Embargo]] sparked gasoline rationing across the nation. The additional length was due to a new front end design and stronger energy absorbing bumpers required of all automobiles sold in the U.S.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Norbye|first=Jan P.|title=New bumpers have uniform height, take angle impacts|journal=Popular Science|pages=90–91|month=October|year=1973|url= http://books.google.com/?id=lpiMSzja6W4C&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90&dq=New+bumpers+have+uniform+Ambassador|volume=203|issue=4|accessdate=16 January 2011}}</ref> Sales of all large-sized cars fell due to economic problems and rising gasoline prices. The full-sized Ambassador was discontinued as AMC's flagship line after the 1974 model year. Nash and AMC had made Ambassadors during 1927-1974, the longest use of the same model name for any AMC product, and, at the time the longest continuously used nameplate in the industry.
 
The Ambassador was redesigned and stretched {{convert|7|in|mm|0}} to became the biggest ever—just as the 1973 [[1973 oil crisis|Arab Oil Embargo]] sparked gasoline rationing across the nation. The additional length was due to a new front end design and stronger energy absorbing bumpers required of all automobiles sold in the U.S.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Norbye|first=Jan P.|title=New bumpers have uniform height, take angle impacts|journal=Popular Science|pages=90–91|month=October|year=1973|url= http://books.google.com/?id=lpiMSzja6W4C&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90&dq=New+bumpers+have+uniform+Ambassador|volume=203|issue=4|accessdate=16 January 2011}}</ref> Sales of all large-sized cars fell due to economic problems and rising gasoline prices. The full-sized Ambassador was discontinued as AMC's flagship line after the 1974 model year. Nash and AMC had made Ambassadors during 1927-1974, the longest use of the same model name for any AMC product, and, at the time the longest continuously used nameplate in the industry.
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The Renault Alliance was the first joint product of the AMC-Renault partnership. Introduced in 1983, the Alliance was a front-wheel drive [[Renault 9 & 11|Renault 9]] compact restyled for the American market by Richard Teague and produced by AMC at Kenosha. The car was initially badged as a Renault, and some cars carried BOTH Renault and AMC badges, however most 1986 and all 1987 models had only AMC branding; it was available as a sedan with two or four doors, a hatchback (introduced in 1984 and badged as [[Renault 9/11|Encore]]), a two-door convertible and, for the final 1987 model year, a higher-performance version of the 2-door sedan and convertible sold as the [[Renault GTA|GTA]].
 
The Renault Alliance was the first joint product of the AMC-Renault partnership. Introduced in 1983, the Alliance was a front-wheel drive [[Renault 9 & 11|Renault 9]] compact restyled for the American market by Richard Teague and produced by AMC at Kenosha. The car was initially badged as a Renault, and some cars carried BOTH Renault and AMC badges, however most 1986 and all 1987 models had only AMC branding; it was available as a sedan with two or four doors, a hatchback (introduced in 1984 and badged as [[Renault 9/11|Encore]]), a two-door convertible and, for the final 1987 model year, a higher-performance version of the 2-door sedan and convertible sold as the [[Renault GTA|GTA]].
   
The new model, introduced at a time of increased interest in small cars, won several awards including Motor Trend Car of the Year. ''Motor Trend'' declared: "The Alliance may well be the best-assembled first-year car we’ve ever seen. Way to go Renault!" The Alliance was listed as number one on ''Car and Driver's'' list of Ten Best cars for 1983,<ref>{{cite journal|title=1983 10 Best Cars: AMC/Renault Alliance - An Alliance Builds an Alliance|journal=Car and Driver|month=January|year=1983|volume=28|issue=7| url =http://www.caranddriver.com/features/archive/1983_10best_cars-10best_cars/an_alliance_builds_an_alliance_page_2 |accessdate=24 November 2010}}</ref> The positive reception and sales of 200,000 Alliances by 1984 was hindered by the availability of only two body styles.<ref name="foreign">{{cite book|last=Jones|first=Geoffrey|first2=Lina|last2=Gálvez-Muñoz|title=Foreign multinationals in the United States: management and performance | chapter=6|year=2001|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=9780415250559|pages=110–112|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=AnsvkPyJPiAC&pg=PA110&dq=Renault+Alliance&hl=en|accessdate=24 November 2010}}</ref> The Alliance was a European-designed car and not fully suited to U.S. market demands.<ref name="foreign"/> The distribution network was also not well supported, which led to lower quality delivered by dealerships with "disastrous consequences" for the image of the automobiles, as well as high warranty costs.<ref name="foreign"/> Alliance production ended in June 1987.
+
The new model, introduced at a time of increased interest in small cars, won several awards including Motor Trend Car of the Year. ''Motor Trend'' declared: "The Alliance may well be the best-assembled first-year car we’ve ever seen. Way to go Renault!" The Alliance was listed as number one on ''[[Car and Driver]]'s'' list of [[Car and Driver Ten Best|Ten Best cars]] for 1983,<ref>{{cite journal|title=1983 10 Best Cars: AMC/Renault Alliance - An Alliance Builds an Alliance|journal=Car and Driver|month=January|year=1983|volume=28|issue=7| url =http://www.caranddriver.com/features/archive/1983_10best_cars-10best_cars/an_alliance_builds_an_alliance_page_2 |accessdate=24 November 2010}}</ref> The positive reception and sales of 200,000 Alliances by 1984 was hindered by the availability of only two body styles.<ref name="foreign">{{cite book|last=Jones|first=Geoffrey|first2=Lina|last2=Gálvez-Muñoz|title=Foreign multinationals in the United States: management and performance | chapter=6|year=2001|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=9780415250559|pages=110–112|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=AnsvkPyJPiAC&pg=PA110&dq=Renault+Alliance&hl=en|accessdate=24 November 2010}}</ref> The Alliance was a European-designed car and not fully suited to U.S. market demands.<ref name="foreign"/> The distribution network was also not well supported, which led to lower quality delivered by dealerships with "disastrous consequences" for the image of the automobiles, as well as high warranty costs.<ref name="foreign"/> Alliance production ended in June 1987.
   
 
===Jeeps===
 
===Jeeps===
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There were significant changes in 1985 as the market moved away from AMC's small models. With fuel relatively cheap again, buyers turned to larger more powerful automobiles and AMC was unprepared for this development. Even the venerable Jeep CJ-5 was dropped after a ''[[60 Minutes]]'' TV news magazine exposé of rollover tendencies under extreme conditions. AMC also confronted an angry work force. Labor was taking revenge, and reports circulated about sabotage of vehicles on the assembly lines because of the failure to receive promised wage increases. There were rumors that the aging Kenosha plant was to be shut down. At the same time, Chrysler was having trouble meeting demand for its M-body rear-drive models ([[Dodge Diplomat]], [[Plymouth Gran Fury]] and [[Chrysler Fifth Avenue]]). Because they were assembled using the old "gate and buck system" and the tooling could be easily moved, Chrysler could supply the components and control the quality, while AMC assembled the car. Therefore, Lee Iacocca and Joe Cappy reached an agreement to use some of AMC's idle plant capacity in Kenosha.<ref name="autogenerated1">{{cite journal |url=http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_lee_iacocca_knew/index.html |last=Sharf |first=Stephan |title=Lee Iacocca as I knew him; he was certainly the right man at the right time... |journal=Ward's AutoWorld |date=1 May 1996 |accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref>
 
There were significant changes in 1985 as the market moved away from AMC's small models. With fuel relatively cheap again, buyers turned to larger more powerful automobiles and AMC was unprepared for this development. Even the venerable Jeep CJ-5 was dropped after a ''[[60 Minutes]]'' TV news magazine exposé of rollover tendencies under extreme conditions. AMC also confronted an angry work force. Labor was taking revenge, and reports circulated about sabotage of vehicles on the assembly lines because of the failure to receive promised wage increases. There were rumors that the aging Kenosha plant was to be shut down. At the same time, Chrysler was having trouble meeting demand for its M-body rear-drive models ([[Dodge Diplomat]], [[Plymouth Gran Fury]] and [[Chrysler Fifth Avenue]]). Because they were assembled using the old "gate and buck system" and the tooling could be easily moved, Chrysler could supply the components and control the quality, while AMC assembled the car. Therefore, Lee Iacocca and Joe Cappy reached an agreement to use some of AMC's idle plant capacity in Kenosha.<ref name="autogenerated1">{{cite journal |url=http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_lee_iacocca_knew/index.html |last=Sharf |first=Stephan |title=Lee Iacocca as I knew him; he was certainly the right man at the right time... |journal=Ward's AutoWorld |date=1 May 1996 |accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref>
   
These problems came in the midst of a transfer of power at AMC from Paul Tippet to a French executive, Pierre Semerena. The new management responded with tactical moves by selling the lawn care [[Wheel Horse]] Products Division and signing an agreement to build Jeeps in the People's Republic of China. The Pentagon had problems with [[AM General]], a significant defense contractor being managed by a partially French-government-owned firm. The U.S. government would not allow a foreign government to own a significant portion of an important defense supplier.<ref>{{cite book|last=Olsen, Barney Olsen, Joseph Cabadas|first=Byron|title=The American Auto Factory|year=2002|publisher=MotorBooks International|isbn=9780760310595|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=iZJzb91qsE4C&pg=PA127&dq=the+Pentagon+didn't+want+a+French-+controlled+company+making+American+military+equipment&hl=en|accessdate=24 November 2010|page=127}}</ref> As a result, the profitable AM General Division was sold. Another milestone was the departure of Dick Teague: AMC's design vice president for 26 years, he was responsible for many Jeep and AMC designs including the Rambler American, Javelin, Hornet, Gremlin, Pacer, and Matador coupe.
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These problems came in the midst of a transfer of power at AMC from Paul Tippet to a French executive, Pierre Semerena. The new management responded with tactical moves by selling the lawn care [[Wheel Horse]] Products Division and signing an agreement to build Jeeps in the People's Republic of China. The Pentagon had problems with [[AM General]], a significant [[defense contractor]], being managed by a partially French-government-owned firm. The U.S. government would not allow a foreign government to own a significant portion of an important defense supplier.<ref>{{cite book|last=Olsen, Barney Olsen, Joseph Cabadas|first=Byron|title=The American Auto Factory|year=2002|publisher=MotorBooks International|isbn=9780760310595|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=iZJzb91qsE4C&pg=PA127&dq=the+Pentagon+didn't+want+a+French-+controlled+company+making+American+military+equipment&hl=en|accessdate=24 November 2010|page=127}}</ref> As a result, the profitable AM General Division was sold. Another milestone was the departure of Dick Teague: AMC's design vice president for 26 years, he was responsible for many Jeep and AMC designs including the Rambler American, Javelin, Hornet, Gremlin, Pacer, and Matador coupe.
   
 
===Problems at Renault and the assassination===
 
===Problems at Renault and the assassination===
 
American Motors' major stockholder, Renault, itself was experiencing financial troubles of its own in France. The investment in AMC (including construction of a new Canadian assembly plant in Brampton, Ontario) forced cuts at home, resulting in the closure of several French plants and mass layoffs. Renault was down to just three alternatives regarding its American holdings: (1) They could declare AMC officially bankrupt thereby lose its investment; (2) They could come up with more money, but Renault management perceived AMC as a bottomless pit; or (3) AMC could be put up for sale and the French could get back part of their investment. Against these detractions, Renault's chairman, Georges Besse, continued to champion the French firm's future in the North American market; pointing to the company's completion of the newest and most-advanced automotive assembly plant in North America at the time at Bramalea — as well as the recent introduction of the thoroughly modern, fuel-injected 4.0&nbsp;L and 2.5&nbsp;L engines. In addition, Jeep vehicles were riding an unprecedented surge in demand. It seemed to Besse and others that AMC was on course for profitability.
 
American Motors' major stockholder, Renault, itself was experiencing financial troubles of its own in France. The investment in AMC (including construction of a new Canadian assembly plant in Brampton, Ontario) forced cuts at home, resulting in the closure of several French plants and mass layoffs. Renault was down to just three alternatives regarding its American holdings: (1) They could declare AMC officially bankrupt thereby lose its investment; (2) They could come up with more money, but Renault management perceived AMC as a bottomless pit; or (3) AMC could be put up for sale and the French could get back part of their investment. Against these detractions, Renault's chairman, Georges Besse, continued to champion the French firm's future in the North American market; pointing to the company's completion of the newest and most-advanced automotive assembly plant in North America at the time at Bramalea — as well as the recent introduction of the thoroughly modern, fuel-injected 4.0&nbsp;L and 2.5&nbsp;L engines. In addition, Jeep vehicles were riding an unprecedented surge in demand. It seemed to Besse and others that AMC was on course for profitability.
   
However, on November 17, 1986, Georges Besse, who had a high profile among French capitalists, was assassinated by Action Directe, a clandestine militant extremist group variously described as communist, anarchist and Maoist,<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/164838/Direct-Action |author=Encyclopædia Britannica |title=Direct Action |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica Online | accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref> which professed strong sympathies for the proletariat and the aspirations of the Third World. The murder was carried out by members of Action Directe's Pierre Overney Commando (named after a Maoist militant killed by a Renault factory guard).<ref>{{cite web| url=http://urbanguerilla.org/actiondirecte/index.html | publisher=Urban Guerilla |title=Action Directe (Archived 4 June 2008) |accessdate=24 November 2010 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080604161024/http://urbanguerilla.org/actiondirecte/index.html |archivedate = 4 June 2008}}</ref> The group stated that the murder was in retaliation for Besse having sacked tens of thousands of workers — 34,000 from the French aluminum producer PUK-Péchiney<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.sea-us.org.au/gulliver/puk.html |publisher=Sea-us |title=The Gulliver PUK (Pechiney-Ugine-Kuhlmann) Dossier |accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.webcitation.org/5kn90Uqk5 |publisher=ABC-GENT files |title=Short Collective Biography (of) Action Directe Prisoners (Archived) |accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref> and 25,000 from Renault.
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However, on November 17, 1986, Georges Besse, who had a high profile among French capitalists, was assassinated by Action Directe, a clandestine militant extremist group variously described as communist, anarchist and Maoist,<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/164838/Direct-Action |author=Encyclopædia Britannica |title=Direct Action |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica Online | accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref> which professed strong sympathies for the [[proletariat]] and the aspirations of the [[Third World]]. The murder was carried out by members of Action Directe's Pierre Overney Commando (named after a Maoist militant killed by a Renault factory guard).<ref>{{cite web| url=http://urbanguerilla.org/actiondirecte/index.html | publisher=Urban Guerilla |title=Action Directe (Archived 4 June 2008) |accessdate=24 November 2010 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080604161024/http://urbanguerilla.org/actiondirecte/index.html |archivedate = 4 June 2008}}</ref> The group stated that the murder was in retaliation for Besse having sacked tens of thousands of workers — 34,000 from the French [[aluminium|aluminum]] producer PUK-Péchiney<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.sea-us.org.au/gulliver/puk.html |publisher=Sea-us |title=The Gulliver PUK (Pechiney-Ugine-Kuhlmann) Dossier |accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.webcitation.org/5kn90Uqk5 |publisher=ABC-GENT files |title=Short Collective Biography (of) Action Directe Prisoners (Archived) |accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref> and 25,000 from Renault.
   
 
===Sale to Chrysler===
 
===Sale to Chrysler===
Under pressure from Renault executives following Besse's death, Renault's new president set out to repair employee relations and divest the company of its investment in American Motors.
+
Under pressure from Renault executives following Besse's death, Renault's new president set out to repair employee relations and [[Divestment|divest]] the company of its investment in American Motors.
   
 
The earlier arrangement between Chrysler and AMC in 1985, under which AMC would produce [[Chrysler M platform|M-body chassis]] rear-drive large cars for two years from 1986–88, fed the rumor that Chrysler was about to buy AMC. According to the head of manufacturing for Chrysler at the time, Stephan Sharf, the existing relationship with AMC producing a car for a competitor facilitated the negotiations.<ref name="autogenerated1"/>
 
The earlier arrangement between Chrysler and AMC in 1985, under which AMC would produce [[Chrysler M platform|M-body chassis]] rear-drive large cars for two years from 1986–88, fed the rumor that Chrysler was about to buy AMC. According to the head of manufacturing for Chrysler at the time, Stephan Sharf, the existing relationship with AMC producing a car for a competitor facilitated the negotiations.<ref name="autogenerated1"/>
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[[File:1st Jeep Grand Cherokee .jpg|thumb|The [[Jeep Grand Cherokee]] was the driving force behind Chrysler's buyout of AMC; Lee Iacocca wanted the design. Chrysler completed development and released it to the public in late 1992, and continues to use the nameplate today.]]
 
[[File:1st Jeep Grand Cherokee .jpg|thumb|The [[Jeep Grand Cherokee]] was the driving force behind Chrysler's buyout of AMC; Lee Iacocca wanted the design. Chrysler completed development and released it to the public in late 1992, and continues to use the nameplate today.]]
   
On March 9, 1987, Chrysler agreed to buy Renault's share in AMC, plus all the remaining shares, for about US$1.5 billion (US${{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|1500000000|1987}}}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}} dollars{{inflation-fn|US}}).<ref name="holusha">{{cite news|last=Holusha|first=John|title=Chrysler is Buying American Motors; Cost is $1.5 Billion|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1987/03/10/business/chrysler-is-buying-american-motors-cost-is-1.5-billion.html?scp=1&sq=American%20Motors%20Corporation&st=cse|accessdate=7 August 2010|newspaper=The New York Times| date=10 March 1987}}</ref> AMC became the [[Jeep-Eagle]] division of Chrysler. It was the Jeep brand that Chrysler CEO Lee Iacocca really wanted — in particular the ZJ [[Jeep Grand Cherokee|Grand Cherokee]], then under development by Jeep engineers, which ultimately proved highly profitable for Chrysler (the nameplate remains in production today). However, the buyout included other attractive deal sweeteners for Chrysler. Among them was the world-class, brand new manufacturing plant in Bramalea Ontario, which offered Iacocca an unprecedented opportunity to increase his company's production capacity at a fire-sale price. AMC had designed and built the plant in anticipation of building the clean-slate designed Eagle Premier. Additional profitable acquisitions were the AMC dealer network (the addition of which strengthened Chrysler's retail distribution — many AMC dealers switched to selling Chrysler products); and AMC's underrated organization and management talent — which Chrysler quickly assimilated (numerous leading Chrysler engineers and executives were ex-AMC).<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_daimlerchrysler_ifs/index.html|title=DaimlerChrysler: The 'What Ifs?'|journal=Ward's AutoWorld|date=1 June 1998|accessdate=29 July 2010}}</ref>
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On March 9, 1987, Chrysler agreed to buy Renault's share in AMC, plus all the remaining shares, for about US$1.5 billion (US${{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|1500000000|1987}}}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}} dollars{{inflation-fn|US}}).<ref name="holusha">{{cite news|last=Holusha|first=John|title=Chrysler is Buying American Motors; Cost is $1.5 Billion|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1987/03/10/business/chrysler-is-buying-american-motors-cost-is-1.5-billion.html?scp=1&sq=American%20Motors%20Corporation&st=cse|accessdate=7 August 2010|newspaper=The New York Times| date=10 March 1987}}</ref> AMC became the [[Jeep-Eagle]] division of Chrysler. It was the Jeep brand that Chrysler CEO [[Lee Iacocca]] really wanted — in particular the ZJ [[Jeep Grand Cherokee|Grand Cherokee]], then under development by Jeep engineers, which ultimately proved highly profitable for Chrysler (the nameplate remains in production today). However, the buyout included other attractive deal sweeteners for Chrysler. Among them was the world-class, brand new manufacturing plant in Bramalea Ontario, which offered Iacocca an unprecedented opportunity to increase his company's [[Capacity utilization|production capacity]] at a fire-sale price. AMC had designed and built the plant in anticipation of building the clean-slate designed Eagle Premier. Additional profitable acquisitions were the AMC dealer network (the addition of which strengthened Chrysler's retail distribution — many AMC dealers switched to selling Chrysler products); and AMC's underrated organization and management talent — which Chrysler quickly assimilated (numerous leading Chrysler engineers and executives were ex-AMC).<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_daimlerchrysler_ifs/index.html|title=DaimlerChrysler: The 'What Ifs?'|journal=Ward's AutoWorld|date=1 June 1998|accessdate=29 July 2010}}</ref>
   
 
Ironically the sale came at a time when the automotive press was enthusiastic about the proposed 1988 lineup of Renault and Jeep vehicles, and reports that the financial outlook for the tiny automaker were improving.<ref name="holusha"/>
 
Ironically the sale came at a time when the automotive press was enthusiastic about the proposed 1988 lineup of Renault and Jeep vehicles, and reports that the financial outlook for the tiny automaker were improving.<ref name="holusha"/>
   
The sale marked [[Renault]]'s withdrawal from the North American market (excluding Mexico) in the 1988 model year. However, the French company has since returned to that market with its subsequent purchase of a US$5.4 billion controlling stake in [[Nissan]] in March 1999.<ref>{{cite book|last=Morosini|first= Piero|title=The Common Glue|year=2005|publisher=Emerald Group|isbn=9780080446103|url= http://books.google.com/?id=JQ3opL7DeT0C&pg=PA209&dq=Renault+returns+to+US+via+Nissan&q|accessdate=7 August 2010|page=209}}</ref> In contrast to the AMC/Renault partnership, Carlos Ghosn, CEO and President of Renault of France and Nissan of Japan, is guiding the Renault-Nissan alliance away from national identities.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Diem|first=William| title=Ghosn Steering Renault-Nissan Alliance Away From National Identities|journal=Ward's AutoWorld |date=29 July 2010}}</ref>
+
The sale marked [[Renault]]'s withdrawal from the North American market (excluding Mexico) in the 1988 model year. However, the French company has since returned to that market with its subsequent purchase of a US$5.4 billion controlling stake in [[Nissan]] in March 1999.<ref>{{cite book|last=Morosini|first= Piero|title=The Common Glue|year=2005|publisher=Emerald Group|isbn=9780080446103|url= http://books.google.com/?id=JQ3opL7DeT0C&pg=PA209&dq=Renault+returns+to+US+via+Nissan&q|accessdate=7 August 2010|page=209}}</ref> In contrast to the AMC/Renault partnership, [[Carlos Ghosn]], CEO and President of Renault of France and Nissan of Japan, is guiding the Renault-Nissan alliance away from national identities.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Diem|first=William| title=Ghosn Steering Renault-Nissan Alliance Away From National Identities|journal=Ward's AutoWorld |date=29 July 2010}}</ref>
   
 
==Business legacy==
 
==Business legacy==
 
American Motors was forced to constantly innovate for 33 years until Chrysler absorbed it in 1987. The lessons learned from this experience were integrated into the company that bought AMC. The organization, strategies, as well as several key executives allowed Chrysler to gain an edge on the competition. Even today, the lessons gained from the AMC experience continue to provide benefits to other firms in the industry. There are a number of legacies from AMC's business strategies.
 
American Motors was forced to constantly innovate for 33 years until Chrysler absorbed it in 1987. The lessons learned from this experience were integrated into the company that bought AMC. The organization, strategies, as well as several key executives allowed Chrysler to gain an edge on the competition. Even today, the lessons gained from the AMC experience continue to provide benefits to other firms in the industry. There are a number of legacies from AMC's business strategies.
   
AMC had an ability to formulate strategies that were often evaluated by industry critics as "strokes of brilliance".<ref name=Higgins>{{cite news|last=Higgins |first=James V.|title=Roy Chapin Jr. mastered how to survive in auto industry |newspaper=The Detroit News |date=12 August 2001 }}</ref> According to Roy D. Chapin Jr. AMC realized they were up against the giants of the industry, so to compete successfully they had to be able to move quickly and with ingenuity.<ref name=Higgins/> An essential strategy practiced by AMC was to rely on [[Outsourcing|outside vendors]] to supply components in which they had [[Sustainable competitive advantage|differential advantages]]. This has finally been accepted in the US auto industry, but only after each of the Big Three experienced the failure of attempting to be self-sufficient. Another example of AMC's agility was the ability of management to squeeze money out of reluctant bankers, even in the face of bankruptcy. These core abilities helped save the company from collapse and after each obstacle, give it the wherewithal to keep it operating. Ironically, AMC was never stronger than just before its demise.<ref name=Higgins/>
+
AMC had an ability to formulate strategies that were often evaluated by industry critics as "strokes of brilliance".<ref name=Higgins>{{cite news|last=Higgins |first=James V.|title=Roy Chapin Jr. mastered how to survive in auto industry |newspaper=The Detroit News |date=12 August 2001 }}</ref> According to [[Roy D. Chapin Jr.]], AMC realized they were up against the giants of the industry, so to compete successfully they had to be able to move quickly and with ingenuity.<ref name=Higgins/> An essential strategy practiced by AMC was to rely on [[Outsourcing|outside vendors]] to supply components in which they had [[Sustainable competitive advantage|differential advantages]]. This has finally been accepted in the US [[auto industry]], but only after each of the Big Three experienced the failure of attempting to be self-sufficient. Another example of AMC's agility was the ability of management to squeeze money out of reluctant bankers, even in the face of bankruptcy. These [[Core competency|core abilities]] helped save the company from collapse and after each obstacle, give it the wherewithal to keep it operating. Ironically, AMC was never stronger than just before its demise.<ref name=Higgins/>
   
 
AMC's managers anticipated important trends in the automotive industry.<ref>{{cite book|last= Lawrence|first=Mike|title=A to Z of Sports Cars, 1945-1990|publisher=MotorBooks/MBI|year=1996|page= 1952|url=http://books.google.com/?id=glKW-Kh-lmcC&pg=PA1952&lpg=PA1952&dq=AMC+anticipating+trends| isbn=9781870979818}}</ref> It preached fuel efficiency in the 1950s, long before most auto buyers demanded it. Led by AMC's Rambler and several European cars, the small car innovation reduced the Big Three's market share from 93% in 1957 to 82% in 1959.<ref>{{cite book|last=Rubenstein|first=James M.|title=Making and selling cars: innovation and change in the U.S. automotive industry|year=2001|publisher=Johns Hopkins University Press|isbn=9780801867149|pages=221–222|url= http://books.google.com/?id=2SpJDgcgoMQC&pg=PA222&dq=AMC+Rambler+and+several+European+products+Big+Three+share|accessdate=14 November 2010}}</ref> The company inherited foreign manufacturing and sales partnerships from Nash and continued developing business relations, decades before most of the international consolidations among automobile makers took place. AMC was the first U.S. automaker to establish ownership agreement with a foreign automaker, Renault. Although small in size, AMC was able to introduce numerous industry innovations. Starting in 1957, AMC was the only U.S. manufacturer to totally immerse all automobile bodies in [[Primer (paint)|primer paint]] for protection against rust, until competitors adopted the practice in 1964.<ref>{{cite book|last=Abernathy|first=William J.|title=The productivity dilemma: roadblock to innovation in the automobile industry|year=1978|publisher=Johns Hopkins University Press|isbn=9780801820816|pages=207–208}}</ref> Even one of AMC's most expensive new product investments (the Pacer) established many features that were later adopted by the auto industry worldwide.<ref>{{cite book|last=Cagan |first2=Craig M. |last2=Vogel |first=Jonathan|title=Creating Breakthrough Products: Innovation from Product Planning to Program Approval|year=2002|publisher=Financial Times Press|isbn=9780139696947|url=http://books.google.com/?id=hlSRf61_nnkC&pg=PA11&dq=many+attributes+the+pacer+incorporated+became+goal+of+all+car+manufacturers|accessdate=24 November 2010|page=11}}</ref> These included aerodynamic body design, space-efficient interiors, aircraft style doors, and a large greenhouse for visibility. AMC was also effective in other areas such as marketing by introducing low rate financing. AMC's four-wheel drive vehicles established the foundation for the modern SUV market segments, and "classic" Jeep models continue to be the benchmark in this field. Roy D. Chapin drew on his experiences as a hunter and fisherman and marketed the Jeep brand successfully to people with like interests. The brand developed a cult appeal that continues.<ref name= Fracassa>{{cite news|last=Fracassa|first=Hawke|title=Roy D. Chapin Jr., ex-AMC chairman gambled to save Jeep |newspaper=The Detroit News|date=7 August 2001}}</ref>
 
AMC's managers anticipated important trends in the automotive industry.<ref>{{cite book|last= Lawrence|first=Mike|title=A to Z of Sports Cars, 1945-1990|publisher=MotorBooks/MBI|year=1996|page= 1952|url=http://books.google.com/?id=glKW-Kh-lmcC&pg=PA1952&lpg=PA1952&dq=AMC+anticipating+trends| isbn=9781870979818}}</ref> It preached fuel efficiency in the 1950s, long before most auto buyers demanded it. Led by AMC's Rambler and several European cars, the small car innovation reduced the Big Three's market share from 93% in 1957 to 82% in 1959.<ref>{{cite book|last=Rubenstein|first=James M.|title=Making and selling cars: innovation and change in the U.S. automotive industry|year=2001|publisher=Johns Hopkins University Press|isbn=9780801867149|pages=221–222|url= http://books.google.com/?id=2SpJDgcgoMQC&pg=PA222&dq=AMC+Rambler+and+several+European+products+Big+Three+share|accessdate=14 November 2010}}</ref> The company inherited foreign manufacturing and sales partnerships from Nash and continued developing business relations, decades before most of the international consolidations among automobile makers took place. AMC was the first U.S. automaker to establish ownership agreement with a foreign automaker, Renault. Although small in size, AMC was able to introduce numerous industry innovations. Starting in 1957, AMC was the only U.S. manufacturer to totally immerse all automobile bodies in [[Primer (paint)|primer paint]] for protection against rust, until competitors adopted the practice in 1964.<ref>{{cite book|last=Abernathy|first=William J.|title=The productivity dilemma: roadblock to innovation in the automobile industry|year=1978|publisher=Johns Hopkins University Press|isbn=9780801820816|pages=207–208}}</ref> Even one of AMC's most expensive new product investments (the Pacer) established many features that were later adopted by the auto industry worldwide.<ref>{{cite book|last=Cagan |first2=Craig M. |last2=Vogel |first=Jonathan|title=Creating Breakthrough Products: Innovation from Product Planning to Program Approval|year=2002|publisher=Financial Times Press|isbn=9780139696947|url=http://books.google.com/?id=hlSRf61_nnkC&pg=PA11&dq=many+attributes+the+pacer+incorporated+became+goal+of+all+car+manufacturers|accessdate=24 November 2010|page=11}}</ref> These included aerodynamic body design, space-efficient interiors, aircraft style doors, and a large greenhouse for visibility. AMC was also effective in other areas such as marketing by introducing low rate financing. AMC's four-wheel drive vehicles established the foundation for the modern SUV market segments, and "classic" Jeep models continue to be the benchmark in this field. Roy D. Chapin drew on his experiences as a hunter and fisherman and marketed the Jeep brand successfully to people with like interests. The brand developed a cult appeal that continues.<ref name= Fracassa>{{cite news|last=Fracassa|first=Hawke|title=Roy D. Chapin Jr., ex-AMC chairman gambled to save Jeep |newspaper=The Detroit News|date=7 August 2001}}</ref>
   
The purchase of AMC was instrumental in reviving Chrysler. According to Robert (Bob) Lutz, former President of Chrysler, the AMC acquisition was a big and risky undertaking.<ref>{{cite book|last=Lutz|first=Robert A.|year=1999| title=Guts: The Seven Laws of Business That Made Chrysler the World's Hottest Car Company| publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=9780471357650}}</ref> The purchase was part of Chrysler's strategic "retreat-cum-diversification" plan that he states did not have the right focus. Initially the goal was to obtain the world-renowned Jeep brand. However, Lutz discovered that the decision to buy AMC turned out to be a gold mine for Chrysler.<ref>Lutz, p. 16.</ref> At that time, Chrysler's management was attempting to find a model to improve structure and operations, ''"something that would help get our minds unstuck and thinking beyond the old paradigms that we were so familiar with''".<ref name="autogenerated2">Lutz, p. 31.</ref> In this transformation, ''"Chrysler's acquisition of AMC was one of the all-time great moments in corporate serendipity''" according to Lutz ''"that most definitely played a key role in demonstrating how to accomplish change''".<ref name="autogenerated2"/>
+
The purchase of AMC was instrumental in reviving Chrysler. According to [[Bob Lutz (businessman)|Robert Lutz]], former President of Chrysler, the AMC acquisition was a big and risky undertaking.<ref>{{cite book|last=Lutz|first=Robert A.|year=1999| title=Guts: The Seven Laws of Business That Made Chrysler the World's Hottest Car Company| publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=9780471357650}}</ref> The purchase was part of Chrysler's strategic "retreat-cum-diversification" plan that he states did not have the right focus. Initially the goal was to obtain the world-renowned Jeep brand. However, Lutz discovered that the decision to buy AMC turned out to be a gold mine for Chrysler.<ref>Lutz, p. 16.</ref> At that time, Chrysler's management was attempting to find a model to improve structure and operations, ''"something that would help get our minds unstuck and thinking beyond the old paradigms that we were so familiar with''".<ref name="autogenerated2">Lutz, p. 31.</ref> In this transformation, ''"Chrysler's acquisition of AMC was one of the all-time great moments in corporate serendipity''" according to Lutz ''"that most definitely played a key role in demonstrating how to accomplish change''".<ref name="autogenerated2"/>
   
 
According to Lutz (1993), while AMC had its share of problems, it was far from being a bunch of "brain-dead losers". He describes the "troops" at AMC as more like the Wake Island Marines in battle, "with almost no resources, and fighting a vastly superior enemy, they were able to roll out an impressive succession of new products".<ref name="autogenerated3">Lutz, p. 33.</ref> After first reacting with anger to the purchase, Chrysler managers soon anticipated the benefits. To further solidify the organizational competencies held by AMC, Lee Iacocca agreed to retain former AMC units, such as engineering, completely intact. In addition, AMC's lead engineer, François Castaing, was made head of all engineering at Chrysler. In an unthinkable strategic move, Castaing completely dismantled the entrenched Chrysler groups. In their place AMC's "[[Automobile platform|platform team]]" was implemented. These were close-knit cross-functional groups responsible for the whole vehicle, as contrasted with Chrysler's highly functional structure. In this capacity, Castaing's strategy was to eliminate the corporate administrative overhead bureaucracy. This move shifted corporate culture and agitated veteran executives who believed that Chrysler's reputation as "the engineering company" was being destroyed. Yet, according to the popular press, by the 1980s Chrysler's reputation was totally shot, and by Lutz's view only dramatic action was going to change that.<ref name="autogenerated3"/> In summary, Chrysler's purchase of AMC laid the critical foundation to help re-establish a strategy for its revival in the 1990s.
 
According to Lutz (1993), while AMC had its share of problems, it was far from being a bunch of "brain-dead losers". He describes the "troops" at AMC as more like the Wake Island Marines in battle, "with almost no resources, and fighting a vastly superior enemy, they were able to roll out an impressive succession of new products".<ref name="autogenerated3">Lutz, p. 33.</ref> After first reacting with anger to the purchase, Chrysler managers soon anticipated the benefits. To further solidify the organizational competencies held by AMC, Lee Iacocca agreed to retain former AMC units, such as engineering, completely intact. In addition, AMC's lead engineer, François Castaing, was made head of all engineering at Chrysler. In an unthinkable strategic move, Castaing completely dismantled the entrenched Chrysler groups. In their place AMC's "[[Automobile platform|platform team]]" was implemented. These were close-knit cross-functional groups responsible for the whole vehicle, as contrasted with Chrysler's highly functional structure. In this capacity, Castaing's strategy was to eliminate the corporate administrative overhead bureaucracy. This move shifted corporate culture and agitated veteran executives who believed that Chrysler's reputation as "the engineering company" was being destroyed. Yet, according to the popular press, by the 1980s Chrysler's reputation was totally shot, and by Lutz's view only dramatic action was going to change that.<ref name="autogenerated3"/> In summary, Chrysler's purchase of AMC laid the critical foundation to help re-establish a strategy for its revival in the 1990s.
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===Passenger automobiles===
 
===Passenger automobiles===
 
[[File:Eagle Premier.jpg|thumb|right|Eagle Premier]]
 
[[File:Eagle Premier.jpg|thumb|right|Eagle Premier]]
Chrysler revived the "Spirit" name dropped by AMC after 1983 for use on one of its [[Chrysler A platform|A platform]] cars, (the [[Dodge Spirit]]) from 1989-1995. The planned [[Renault Medallion]] was sold as the [[Eagle Medallion]] in 1988 and 1989. A Renault/AMC concept, the Summit, was produced by [[Mitsubishi Motors]] beginning in 1989. The planned all-new 1988 Renault Premier, a joint development effort between American Motors and Renault, and for which the Brampton Assembly plant (Brampton, Ontario] was built, was sold by Chrysler as the 1988-1992 [[Eagle Premier]], with a rebadged [[Dodge Monaco]] variant available from 1990-1992. The [[Full-size car|full-sized]] Premier's platform was far more advanced than anything Chrysler was building at the time. After some re-engineering and a re-designation to Chrysler [[Chrysler LH platform|code LH]], the Eagle Premier went on to form the backbone of Chrysler's passenger car lineup during the 1990s as the [[Chrysler Concorde]] (a revived model name that was briefly used by [[Plymouth Concord|Plymouth]] in 1951 and 1952), [[Chrysler New Yorker]], [[Chrysler LHS]], [[Dodge Intrepid]], and [[Eagle Vision]].<ref>{{cite journal|last=Hailig|first=John A.|title=To the Edge and Back: Re-Emergence in the Eighties|journal=Automobile Quarterly|volume=32|issue=4|page=104}}</ref> Plymouth almost received their own rendition of the LH platform, which was to be called the Accolade, but Chrysler decided to nix this idea not long before LH production started. The [[Chrysler 300M]] was likewise a Premier/LH-derived car and was initially to have been the next-generation Eagle Vision, until the [[Eagle (automobile)|Eagle]] brand was dropped after 1998. Hence the much lauded "[[cab forward]]" designed that Chrysler took so much credit for in the 1990s was actually a modified and restyled version of the AMC/Renault collaboration that resulted in the Premier.
+
Chrysler revived the "Spirit" name dropped by AMC after 1983 for use on one of its [[Chrysler A platform|A platform]] cars, (the [[Dodge Spirit]]) from 1989-1995. The planned [[Renault Medallion]] was sold as the [[Eagle Medallion]] in 1988 and 1989. A Renault/AMC concept, the Summit, was produced by [[Mitsubishi Motors]] beginning in 1989. The planned all-new 1988 Renault Premier, a joint development effort between American Motors and Renault, and for which the [[Brampton Assembly]] plant ([[Brampton]], [[Ontario]]) was built, was sold by Chrysler as the 1988-1992 [[Eagle Premier]], with a rebadged [[Dodge Monaco]] variant available from 1990-1992. The [[Full-size car|full-sized]] Premier's platform was far more advanced than anything Chrysler was building at the time. After some re-engineering and a re-designation to Chrysler [[Chrysler LH platform|code LH]], the Eagle Premier went on to form the backbone of Chrysler's passenger car lineup during the 1990s as the [[Chrysler Concorde]] (a revived model name that was briefly used by [[Plymouth Concord|Plymouth]] in 1951 and 1952), [[Chrysler New Yorker]], [[Chrysler LHS]], [[Dodge Intrepid]], and [[Eagle Vision]].<ref>{{cite journal|last=Hailig|first=John A.|title=To the Edge and Back: Re-Emergence in the Eighties|journal=Automobile Quarterly|volume=32|issue=4|page=104}}</ref> Plymouth almost received their own rendition of the LH platform, which was to be called the Accolade, but Chrysler decided to nix this idea not long before LH production started. The [[Chrysler 300M]] was likewise a Premier/LH-derived car and was initially to have been the next-generation Eagle Vision, until the [[Eagle (automobile)|Eagle]] brand was dropped after 1998. Hence the much lauded "[[cab forward]]" designed that Chrysler took so much credit for in the 1990s was actually a modified and restyled version of the AMC/Renault collaboration that resulted in the Premier.
   
 
===Jeep vehicles===
 
===Jeep vehicles===
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:: {{Coord|42|22|26.12|N|83|11|0.73|W|type:landmark_scale:2000|display=inline}}
 
:: {{Coord|42|22|26.12|N|83|11|0.73|W|type:landmark_scale:2000|display=inline}}
   
'''''[[American Center]]''''' - AMC's corporate headquarters in [[Southfield, Michigan]] is still standing,<ref>[http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=129625American Center building] overview & specifications page from a skyscraper website. Retrieved January 22, 2008.</ref> still open, and still called "American Center". The original "American Center" signage at the top of the building remained until 2005, although the AMC logo has been removed. The signage has since been changed to Charter One. The 25-story building is rented to several different organizations and companies as office space. After the Chrysler acquisition, Chrysler Financial occupied as much as {{convert|175000|sqft|m2}} of the building.<ref>{{cite web|last=King|first=Jenny|url=http://nreionline.com/mag/real_estate_detroit_not_pretty/|title=Detroit: not just another pretty face, the Motor City and southeast Michigan offer stability, opportunity for growth |publisher=Nreionline.com|date=1 August 1995 |accessdate=24 November 2010}}</ref>
+
'''''[[American Center]]''''' - AMC's corporate headquarters in [[Southfield, Michigan]] is still standing,<ref>[http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=129625American Center building] overview & specifications page from a skyscraper website. Retrieved January 22, 2008.</ref> still open, and still called "American Center". The original "American Center" signage at the top of the building remained until 2005, although the AMC logo has been removed. The signage has since been changed to [[Charter One]]. The 25-story building is rented to several different organizations and companies as office space. After the Chrysler acquisition, Chrysler Financial occupied as much as {{convert|175000|sqft|m2}} of the building.<ref>{{cite web|last=King|first=Jenny|url=http://nreionline.com/mag/real_estate_detroit_not_pretty/|title=Detroit: not just another pretty face, the Motor City and southeast Michigan offer stability, opportunity for growth |publisher=Nreionline.com|date=1 August 1995 |accessdate=24 November 2010}}</ref>
   
 
'''''Toledo South Assembly Plants ''''' - Torn down in 2007 by Chrysler. Until it was demolished, still visible on most of the signage on the outside of the factories were areas where Chrysler painted over the AMC logo.
 
'''''Toledo South Assembly Plants ''''' - Torn down in 2007 by Chrysler. Until it was demolished, still visible on most of the signage on the outside of the factories were areas where Chrysler painted over the AMC logo.
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'''''Brampton (formerly Bramalea) Assembly and Satellite Stamping Plants'''''.<ref>[http://www.challengerblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/07/brampton_ontarioplant.jpg Brampton (Bramalea) Assembly plant] Photo of Brampton plant on the Challenger blog. Retrieved January 22, 2008.</ref><ref>[http://www.media.chrysler.com/newsrelease.do?mid=9&id=332 Brampton Assembly Plant fact sheet] by Chrysler Group LLC. Retrieved April 11, 2010.</ref> — still in use by Chrysler. AMC designed this US$260 million (US${{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|260000000|1984}}}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}} dollars{{inflation-fn|US}}), {{convert|2500000|sqft|adj=on}} plant, which was operational by 1986.<ref>[http://www.ellisdon.com/ed/projects/view/?id=3088665 Outline of Bramalea construction project] (with photos of the plant and explanatory text) by infrastructure builder EllisDon Corporation. This firm completed the Brampton Assembly Plant and associated buildings for AMC in September 1987. Retrieved January 22, 2008.</ref> This plant was designed and built by AMC for the specific purpose of building the [[Eagle Premier]]. Like the older Brampton plant (see "Former Factory Facilities", below), this factory was also part of American Motors Canada, Inc., and with the Chrysler buy-out in 1987, became part of Chrysler Canada Limited. The plant currently builds the LX series of vehicles including the Chrysler 300, the Dodge Charger. Also Producing a slightly modified version of the lX series; renamed the LC series; supporting the Dodge Challenger nameplate.
 
'''''Brampton (formerly Bramalea) Assembly and Satellite Stamping Plants'''''.<ref>[http://www.challengerblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/07/brampton_ontarioplant.jpg Brampton (Bramalea) Assembly plant] Photo of Brampton plant on the Challenger blog. Retrieved January 22, 2008.</ref><ref>[http://www.media.chrysler.com/newsrelease.do?mid=9&id=332 Brampton Assembly Plant fact sheet] by Chrysler Group LLC. Retrieved April 11, 2010.</ref> — still in use by Chrysler. AMC designed this US$260 million (US${{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|260000000|1984}}}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}} dollars{{inflation-fn|US}}), {{convert|2500000|sqft|adj=on}} plant, which was operational by 1986.<ref>[http://www.ellisdon.com/ed/projects/view/?id=3088665 Outline of Bramalea construction project] (with photos of the plant and explanatory text) by infrastructure builder EllisDon Corporation. This firm completed the Brampton Assembly Plant and associated buildings for AMC in September 1987. Retrieved January 22, 2008.</ref> This plant was designed and built by AMC for the specific purpose of building the [[Eagle Premier]]. Like the older Brampton plant (see "Former Factory Facilities", below), this factory was also part of American Motors Canada, Inc., and with the Chrysler buy-out in 1987, became part of Chrysler Canada Limited. The plant currently builds the LX series of vehicles including the Chrysler 300, the Dodge Charger. Also Producing a slightly modified version of the lX series; renamed the LC series; supporting the Dodge Challenger nameplate.
   
'''''Kenosha "Main" Plant''''' - Portions of the Kenosha Main Plant, now Chrysler's [[Kenosha Engine]] plant, with some new additions, at 52nd Street and 30th Avenue, continued to be run by Chrysler as an engine-production factory. This plant is scheduled to close in September 2010 as part of Chrysler LLC's Chapter 11 bankruptcy procedure which resulted from the ongoing automotive industry crisis.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://wot.motortrend.com/6508327/auto-news/chrysler-to-close-eight-plants-by-2010-10-remain-for-long-term-growth/index.html|title= Chrysler To Close Eight Plants by 2010; 10 Remain For Long Term Growth |journal=Motor Trend |first=Nate |last=Martinez |date=1 May 2009 |accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref>
+
'''''Kenosha "Main" Plant''''' - Portions of the Kenosha Main Plant, now Chrysler's [[Kenosha Engine]] plant, with some new additions, at 52nd Street and 30th Avenue, continued to be run by Chrysler as an engine-production factory. This plant is scheduled to close in September 2010 as part of Chrysler LLC's [[Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code|Chapter 11 bankruptcy]] procedure which resulted from the ongoing [[automotive industry crisis of 2008–2009|automotive industry crisis]].<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://wot.motortrend.com/6508327/auto-news/chrysler-to-close-eight-plants-by-2010-10-remain-for-long-term-growth/index.html|title= Chrysler To Close Eight Plants by 2010; 10 Remain For Long Term Growth |journal=Motor Trend |first=Nate |last=Martinez |date=1 May 2009 |accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref>
   
 
'''''Canadian Fabricated Products Ltd.''''' - An AMC division (part of AMC Canada, Ltd.) in Stratford, Ontario; established 1971 and sold post-buyout by DaimlerChrysler in 1994; produced automotive interior trim.<ref name=DCXCanadaHist>[http://www.daimlerchrysler.ca/CA/03/EN/CORPORATE/1,,CA-03-EN-CORPORATE-DCC-HISTORY-1980,.html Summary of AMC Canada] operations acquired with the AMC buyout on DaimlerChrysler Canada history page. Retrieved January 22, 2008.</ref>
 
'''''Canadian Fabricated Products Ltd.''''' - An AMC division (part of AMC Canada, Ltd.) in Stratford, Ontario; established 1971 and sold post-buyout by DaimlerChrysler in 1994; produced automotive interior trim.<ref name=DCXCanadaHist>[http://www.daimlerchrysler.ca/CA/03/EN/CORPORATE/1,,CA-03-EN-CORPORATE-DCC-HISTORY-1980,.html Summary of AMC Canada] operations acquired with the AMC buyout on DaimlerChrysler Canada history page. Retrieved January 22, 2008.</ref>
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'''''Coleman Products Corporation''''' - An AMC subsidiary in Coleman, Wisconsin. Manufactured automotive wiring harnesses for AMC and other automakers.
 
'''''Coleman Products Corporation''''' - An AMC subsidiary in Coleman, Wisconsin. Manufactured automotive wiring harnesses for AMC and other automakers.
   
'''''Evart Products Co.''''' - An AMC subsidiary in Evart, Michigan. The plant was established in 1953 with 25 workers and eventually expanded to over 1,200, becoming Osceola County's largest employer.<ref name=evart>{{cite web|last=Elliot|first=Daniel L. |title=Early Evart|publisher=Evart Michigan DDA & LDFA|year=2010|url=http://www.evart.org/?p=30|accessdate==26 February 2011}}</ref> This factory manufactured [[Injection molding|injection molded]] plastic parts (notably, grilles) for AMC (supplying 90% of in-house needs<ref>{{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=CrISAQAAMAAJ&q=Evart+Products+Co.,+the+large+plastics+molding+operation,+90%25+of+production+supplies+in-house+needs |title=Automotive Industries, Volume 153|publisher=Chilton |year=1975|page=62}}</ref>), as well as for other automakers. In 1966, Products Wire Harness was built.<ref name=evart/> After Chrysler's purchase of AMC, [[Collins & Aikman]] took over the factory.<ref name=evart/>
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'''''Evart Products Co.''''' - An AMC subsidiary in Evart, Michigan. The plant was established in 1953 with 25 workers and eventually expanded to over 1,200, becoming [[Osceola County, Michigan|Osceola County's]] largest employer.<ref name=evart>{{cite web|last=Elliot|first=Daniel L. |title=Early Evart|publisher=Evart Michigan DDA & LDFA|year=2010|url=http://www.evart.org/?p=30|accessdate==26 February 2011}}</ref> This factory manufactured [[Injection molding|injection molded]] plastic parts (notably, grilles) for AMC (supplying 90% of in-house needs<ref>{{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=CrISAQAAMAAJ&q=Evart+Products+Co.,+the+large+plastics+molding+operation,+90%25+of+production+supplies+in-house+needs |title=Automotive Industries, Volume 153|publisher=Chilton |year=1975|page=62}}</ref>), as well as for other automakers. In 1966, Products Wire Harness was built.<ref name=evart/> After Chrysler's purchase of AMC, [[Collins & Aikman]] took over the factory.<ref name=evart/>
   
 
'''''Mercury Plastics Co.''''' - Mercury Plastics operated a plant at 34501 Harper Ave., Mt. Clemens, Michigan. The company was acquired in 1973 for 611,111 shares of AMC stock.<ref>{{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=3eITAQAAMAAJ&q=Mercury+Plastics+AMC |title=Michigan manufacturer and financial record, Volumes 131-132|publisher=Manufacturer Publications |year=1973 |page=16 |accessdate=26 February 2011}}</ref> The company produced plastic parts for AMC, as well as for uses in other industries.
 
'''''Mercury Plastics Co.''''' - Mercury Plastics operated a plant at 34501 Harper Ave., Mt. Clemens, Michigan. The company was acquired in 1973 for 611,111 shares of AMC stock.<ref>{{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=3eITAQAAMAAJ&q=Mercury+Plastics+AMC |title=Michigan manufacturer and financial record, Volumes 131-132|publisher=Manufacturer Publications |year=1973 |page=16 |accessdate=26 February 2011}}</ref> The company produced plastic parts for AMC, as well as for uses in other industries.
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'''''Windsor Plastics Co.''''' - Windsor Plastics, 601 North Congress Avenue, Evansville, Indiana was acquired in 1970. The division produced plastic parts for AMC and other industries. The company was sold to [[Guardian Industries]] in 1982, and underwent a name change to Guardian Automotive Trim, Inc. It is still in operation today. The original factory in Evansville continues to manufacture plastic parts for the OEM and aftermarket automotive industries. Items manufactured include grilles, bezels, and other parts.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Graves|first=Beverly|title=Plating Plastics at Guardian Automotive Trim |journal=Products Finishing Magazine|volume=|page=|month=May |year=1999|url= http://www.pfonline.com/articles/plating-plastics-at-guardian-automotive-trim|accessdate=24 February 2011|issue=}}</ref>
 
'''''Windsor Plastics Co.''''' - Windsor Plastics, 601 North Congress Avenue, Evansville, Indiana was acquired in 1970. The division produced plastic parts for AMC and other industries. The company was sold to [[Guardian Industries]] in 1982, and underwent a name change to Guardian Automotive Trim, Inc. It is still in operation today. The original factory in Evansville continues to manufacture plastic parts for the OEM and aftermarket automotive industries. Items manufactured include grilles, bezels, and other parts.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Graves|first=Beverly|title=Plating Plastics at Guardian Automotive Trim |journal=Products Finishing Magazine|volume=|page=|month=May |year=1999|url= http://www.pfonline.com/articles/plating-plastics-at-guardian-automotive-trim|accessdate=24 February 2011|issue=}}</ref>
   
'''''The AMC Proving Grounds''''' - The former {{convert|300|acre|km2 sqmi|abbr=on}} AMC Proving Grounds in Burlington, Wisconsin had initially been Nash's test track and subsequently became Jeep's test facilities (after AMC's acquisition of Willys in the 1970s). The grounds fell into disuse after Chrysler's takeover of AMC in 1987 and subsequently became the engineering and test facilty for MGA Research.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Miller|first=Patrick|title=Touching Base: Twenty Years Later|journal=MGA News|volume=22|page=3|month=December |year=2008|url= http://www.mgaresearch.com/resources/December20084.pdf|accessdate=24 November 2010|issue=12}}</ref> The company rents out this proving grounds to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), for "ride-and-drive" events by automakers, as well as for movies and commercials.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Davis|first=Mike|title=Yoostabees: Auto Test Tracks|journal=Business Week| date=2005–12–29|url=http://www.businessweek.com/autos/content/dec2005/bw20051229_890231.htm| accessdate=2010–03–08}}</ref>
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'''''The AMC Proving Grounds''''' - The former {{convert|300|acre|km2 sqmi|abbr=on}} AMC Proving Grounds in Burlington, Wisconsin had initially been Nash's test track and subsequently became Jeep's test facilities (after AMC's acquisition of Willys in the 1970s). The grounds fell into disuse after Chrysler's takeover of AMC in 1987 and subsequently became the engineering and test facilty for MGA Research.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Miller|first=Patrick|title=Touching Base: Twenty Years Later|journal=MGA News|volume=22|page=3|month=December |year=2008|url= http://www.mgaresearch.com/resources/December20084.pdf|accessdate=24 November 2010|issue=12}}</ref> The company rents out this proving grounds to the [[National Highway Traffic Safety Administration]] (NHTSA), for "ride-and-drive" events by automakers, as well as for movies and commercials.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Davis|first=Mike|title=Yoostabees: Auto Test Tracks|journal=Business Week| date=2005–12–29|url=http://www.businessweek.com/autos/content/dec2005/bw20051229_890231.htm| accessdate=2010–03–08}}</ref>
   
 
:: AMC Proving Grounds: {{Coord|42|37|43.46|N|88|18|33.19|W|type:landmark_scale:2000|display=inline}}
 
:: AMC Proving Grounds: {{Coord|42|37|43.46|N|88|18|33.19|W|type:landmark_scale:2000|display=inline}}
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'''''Axle tooling equipment''''' - sold in 1985 to [[Dana Corp.]]<ref name=allen101>{{cite book| last=Allen|first=Jim|title=Jeep 4x4 Performance Handbook|publisher=MotorBooks/MBI Publishing|year=2007|page=101|isbn=9780760326879}}</ref> Dana manufactured the AMC-20 axles for [[AM General|AM General's]] [[High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle|Hummer H1]]. The company also continues to produce the AMC-15 axle as well; however they has been upgraded from AMC's original design with multiple variations (including front axle designs) and they now referred to as a Dana 35.
 
'''''Axle tooling equipment''''' - sold in 1985 to [[Dana Corp.]]<ref name=allen101>{{cite book| last=Allen|first=Jim|title=Jeep 4x4 Performance Handbook|publisher=MotorBooks/MBI Publishing|year=2007|page=101|isbn=9780760326879}}</ref> Dana manufactured the AMC-20 axles for [[AM General|AM General's]] [[High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle|Hummer H1]]. The company also continues to produce the AMC-15 axle as well; however they has been upgraded from AMC's original design with multiple variations (including front axle designs) and they now referred to as a Dana 35.
   
'''''Holmes Foundry, Ltd.''''' - AMC's block-casting foundry was a major AMC factory which is now completely obliterated. Holmes had its main office and foundry at 200 Exmouth Street, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. Holmes was established in 1918, by Mr. J. S. Blunt, and was called Holmes Blunt Limited. In the early years, [[Ford Motor Company]] contracted the plant for a steady supply of engine casting blocks. This factory had a reputation locally as a dirty, dangerous place to work. The company had three divisions, all operating on one site at the edge of Sarnia. Beginning in 1962, AMC contracted with Holmes Foundry to supply AMC with [[cylinder block]] castings.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.angelfire.com/my/HolmesFoundry/|title=Holmes Foundry: Sarnia, Ontario|publisher=holmesfoundry at hotmail period com|accessdate=2010–05–06}}</ref> American Motors acquired 25% interest in the foundry in January 1966. In July 1970, AMC acquired 100% of Holmes Foundry through an exchange of shares, making it a wholly owned subsidiary.<ref>{{cite journal|title=American Newsletter|journal=The Foundry|publisher=Institute of British Foundrymen|volume=129|year=1970}}</ref> However, it was not until October 1981 that Holmes Foundry finally became a Division of American Motors, Canada. As part of its acquisition of AMC in 1987, Chrysler Corporation took ownership of the Holmes facility and its manufacturing business, but closed the operation on September 16, 1988. The industrial facilities were cleaned of their environmental contaminants in 2005, in preparation for a new highway interchange to be built on the site.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Stokes|first=Glenn|title=Dump trailer liners used in decommissioned foundry clean-up project|journal=Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine|url=http://www.esemag.com/1105/hqn.html|date=November 2005|accessdate= 2010–05–06}}</ref>
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'''''Holmes Foundry, Ltd.''''' - AMC's block-casting foundry was a major AMC factory which is now completely obliterated. Holmes had its main office and [[foundry]] at 200 Exmouth Street, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. Holmes was established in 1918, by Mr. J. S. Blunt, and was called Holmes Blunt Limited. In the early years, [[Ford Motor Company]] contracted the plant for a steady supply of engine casting blocks. This factory had a reputation locally as a dirty, dangerous place to work. The company had three divisions, all operating on one site at the edge of Sarnia. Beginning in 1962, AMC contracted with Holmes Foundry to supply AMC with [[cylinder block]] castings.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.angelfire.com/my/HolmesFoundry/|title=Holmes Foundry: Sarnia, Ontario|publisher=holmesfoundry at hotmail period com|accessdate=2010–05–06}}</ref> American Motors acquired 25% interest in the foundry in January 1966. In July 1970, AMC acquired 100% of Holmes Foundry through an exchange of shares, making it a wholly owned subsidiary.<ref>{{cite journal|title=American Newsletter|journal=The Foundry|publisher=Institute of British Foundrymen|volume=129|year=1970}}</ref> However, it was not until October 1981 that Holmes Foundry finally became a Division of American Motors, Canada. As part of its acquisition of AMC in 1987, Chrysler Corporation took ownership of the Holmes facility and its manufacturing business, but closed the operation on September 16, 1988. The industrial facilities were cleaned of their [[environmental contaminant]]s in 2005, in preparation for a new [[Interchange (road)|highway interchange]] to be built on the site.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Stokes|first=Glenn|title=Dump trailer liners used in decommissioned foundry clean-up project|journal=Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine|url=http://www.esemag.com/1105/hqn.html|date=November 2005|accessdate= 2010–05–06}}</ref>
   
 
'''''Kenosha "Lakefront" (Kenosha, Wisconsin) Plant''''' - The AMC plant in downtown Kenosha along Lake Michigan was razed, and after reclamation the land was used for new development. At the company's inception in 1954, the plant covered {{convert|3195000|sqft|m2|abbr=on}} and together with the had an annual production capacity of 350,000 cars.<ref name=Ward>{{cite book|last=Ward| first=James Arthur|title=The Fall of the Packard Motor Car Company|publisher=Stanford University Press|year=1995|page=124|isbn=9780804724579|url=http://books.google.com/?id=7D11a-EPzwMC&pg=PA124&lpg=PA124&dq=milwaukee+body+plant|accessdate=2010–05–06}}</ref> The Engine plant, located in the center of town, is still in use by Chrysler. Its days appeared numbered after being listed as one of the plants that would be shut down due to Chrysler's bankruptcy proceedings.
 
'''''Kenosha "Lakefront" (Kenosha, Wisconsin) Plant''''' - The AMC plant in downtown Kenosha along Lake Michigan was razed, and after reclamation the land was used for new development. At the company's inception in 1954, the plant covered {{convert|3195000|sqft|m2|abbr=on}} and together with the had an annual production capacity of 350,000 cars.<ref name=Ward>{{cite book|last=Ward| first=James Arthur|title=The Fall of the Packard Motor Car Company|publisher=Stanford University Press|year=1995|page=124|isbn=9780804724579|url=http://books.google.com/?id=7D11a-EPzwMC&pg=PA124&lpg=PA124&dq=milwaukee+body+plant|accessdate=2010–05–06}}</ref> The Engine plant, located in the center of town, is still in use by Chrysler. Its days appeared numbered after being listed as one of the plants that would be shut down due to Chrysler's bankruptcy proceedings.
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'''''Danforth Ave (Toronto, Ontario) Plant''''' - Inherited from Nash. This plant was purchased by Nash from Ford of Canada in 1946. The first Canadian-built Nash rolled off the line in April, 1950. Upon the formation of American Motors in 1954, the plant assembled 1955 Nash and Hudson Ramblers (2- and 4-door sedans); as well as Nash Canadian Statesman and Hudson Wasp (4door sedans). In 1956, the plant continued to assemble Nash and Hudson Rambler (4-door sedans and wagons) and the Nash Canadian Statesman (4-door sedan); but The Hudson Wasp was imported. That same year, American Motors Sales (Canada) Limited was formed — taking over Nash Motors of Canada Limited and Hudson Motors of Canada Limited. In 1957, AMC assembled the [[Rambler Six]] and [[Rambler Rebel|Rambler Rebel V8]] at the Danforth plant; but in July, 1957, AMC closed the plant and imported Ramblers into Canada until 1961.
 
'''''Danforth Ave (Toronto, Ontario) Plant''''' - Inherited from Nash. This plant was purchased by Nash from Ford of Canada in 1946. The first Canadian-built Nash rolled off the line in April, 1950. Upon the formation of American Motors in 1954, the plant assembled 1955 Nash and Hudson Ramblers (2- and 4-door sedans); as well as Nash Canadian Statesman and Hudson Wasp (4door sedans). In 1956, the plant continued to assemble Nash and Hudson Rambler (4-door sedans and wagons) and the Nash Canadian Statesman (4-door sedan); but The Hudson Wasp was imported. That same year, American Motors Sales (Canada) Limited was formed — taking over Nash Motors of Canada Limited and Hudson Motors of Canada Limited. In 1957, AMC assembled the [[Rambler Six]] and [[Rambler Rebel|Rambler Rebel V8]] at the Danforth plant; but in July, 1957, AMC closed the plant and imported Ramblers into Canada until 1961.
   
'''''Tilbury, Ontario Assembly Plant''''' - Another plant AMC inherited from the 1954 merger; this one via Hudson. Specifically, it was a contract with CHATCO Steel Products which actually owned the plant. American Motors ceased Hudson production at the Tilbury plant in 1955.
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'''''[[Tilbury, Ontario]] Assembly Plant''''' - Another plant AMC inherited from the 1954 merger; this one via Hudson. Specifically, it was a contract with CHATCO Steel Products which actually owned the plant. American Motors ceased Hudson production at the Tilbury plant in 1955.
   
'''''Brampton Assembly Plant''''' - AMC opened a plant in 1960 in Brampton, Ontario, Canada. It was part of American Motors Canada, Inc. Rambler Drive, a small street just west of this plant, still exists and leads into a residential subdivision that was built in the 1960s. In 1987, with the Chrysler buy-out, the division and the plant were absorbed as well, becoming part of Chrysler Canada Limited. The plant was closed in 1994 and sold to Wal-Mart for use as their Canadian warehouse. This plant/warehouse was demolished in 2004 and redeveloped in 2007 with multiple smaller commercial buildings now onsite; a new Lowes Home Improvement Warehouse now takes up the largest section of this commercial development. Note that this is a separate facility from the current Brampton (formerly Bramalea) Assembly and Satellite Stamping Plants nearby.
+
'''''Brampton Assembly Plant''''' - AMC opened a plant in 1960 in Brampton, Ontario, Canada. It was part of American Motors Canada, Inc. Rambler Drive, a small street just west of this plant, still exists and leads into a residential subdivision that was built in the 1960s. In 1987, with the Chrysler buy-out, the division and the plant were absorbed as well, becoming part of Chrysler Canada Limited. The plant was closed in 1994 and sold to Wal-Mart for use as their Canadian warehouse. This plant/warehouse was demolished in 2004 and redeveloped in 2007 with multiple smaller commercial buildings now onsite; a new Lowes Home Improvement Warehouse now takes up the largest section of this commercial development. Note that this is a separate facility from the current [[Brampton Assembly|Brampton (formerly Bramalea) Assembly]] and Satellite Stamping Plants nearby.
   
'''''South Charleston Stamping Plant''''' - A South Charleston, West Virginia facility owned by Park Corporation of Cleveland, OH since 1969. While AMC leased it, the plant stamped steel automotive parts. The plant was later leased to other auto companies. The plant was in the news in October 2006 as the most recent tenant, Union Stamping and Assembly, declared bankruptcy.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.coalcampusa.com/rustbelt/wv/stamping.jpg|title=Union Stamping and Assembly plant, photo of former AMC stamping plant|author=Chris DellaMea's "Coalfields Of The Appalachian Mountains"| accessdate=26 February 2011}}</ref>
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'''''South Charleston Stamping Plant''''' - A South Charleston, West Virginia facility owned by Park Corporation of Cleveland, [[Ohio|OH]] since 1969. While AMC leased it, the plant stamped steel automotive parts. The plant was later leased to other auto companies. The plant was in the news in October 2006 as the most recent tenant, Union Stamping and Assembly, declared bankruptcy.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.coalcampusa.com/rustbelt/wv/stamping.jpg|title=Union Stamping and Assembly plant, photo of former AMC stamping plant|author=Chris DellaMea's "Coalfields Of The Appalachian Mountains"| accessdate=26 February 2011}}</ref>
   
 
===Later reuse of the name===
 
===Later reuse of the name===
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The early Javelin (1968–70) stands out from the Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler pony cars.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.automobilemag.com/features/collectible_classic/0706_1968_amc_javelin/index.html |last=Blackwell |first=Rusty |title=Collectible Classic: 1968-70 AMC Javelin |journal=Automobile Magazine |month=February |year=2009 |accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref> Car expert Jack Nerad noted in a 2007 article "several fully restored AMX models" listed for sale at "little more than half the price of a comparable [[Buick Gran Sport]], [[Chevrolet Chevelle]], [[Oldsmobile 4-4-2|Olds 4-4-2]] or [[Pontiac GTO]]" in support of the author’s opinion that the 1971-74 Javelin was "clearly an outstanding alternative muscle car for the enthusiast on a budget."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.carprices.com/articles/cars.html |last=Nerad |firat=Jack |title=It doesn’t take a mint to buy one of tomorrow’s top collector cars |publisher=Driving Today |year=2009|accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref>
 
The early Javelin (1968–70) stands out from the Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler pony cars.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.automobilemag.com/features/collectible_classic/0706_1968_amc_javelin/index.html |last=Blackwell |first=Rusty |title=Collectible Classic: 1968-70 AMC Javelin |journal=Automobile Magazine |month=February |year=2009 |accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref> Car expert Jack Nerad noted in a 2007 article "several fully restored AMX models" listed for sale at "little more than half the price of a comparable [[Buick Gran Sport]], [[Chevrolet Chevelle]], [[Oldsmobile 4-4-2|Olds 4-4-2]] or [[Pontiac GTO]]" in support of the author’s opinion that the 1971-74 Javelin was "clearly an outstanding alternative muscle car for the enthusiast on a budget."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.carprices.com/articles/cars.html |last=Nerad |firat=Jack |title=It doesn’t take a mint to buy one of tomorrow’s top collector cars |publisher=Driving Today |year=2009|accessdate=24 November 2010 }}</ref>
   
According to James C. Mays, automotive historian and author of ''The Savvy Guide to Buying Collector Cars at Auction'', the "Wow! Factor" is an important and measurable pleasure to an owner whether their car is driven or sits in a climate-controlled garage.<ref name=savvy>{{cite book|last =Mays|first=James C.|title=The Savvy Guide to Buying Collector Cars at Auction|publisher=Indy-Tech Publishing|year=2006|page=77|isbn=9780790613222}}</ref> His "Wow! Factor" includes examples of a bright red 1969 AMX that according to its owner "is just a fast Rambler", but draws more people at events than the more prestigious[[Ferrari]]s and [[Lamborghini]]s, as well as a "million-dollar moment" when a Rambler owner was serenaded with the "Beep Beep" song by The Playmates while fueling at a travel plaza.<ref name=savvy/> Moreover, the author's collector car, a 1969 Ambassador station wagon, made friends as strangers came to greet and host him as if "long lost kin".<ref>Mays, pp. 37–38.</ref> Mays points out the ready availability of parts for AMC engines and his experiences in having service done on Ramblers without being charged for the work in exchange for the experience of driving a "sassy Rambler" (a 1966 American convertible) and having pictures taken with it.<ref>Mays, pp. 39–40.</ref>
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According to James C. Mays, automotive historian and author of ''The Savvy Guide to Buying Collector Cars at Auction'', the "Wow! Factor" is an important and measurable pleasure to an owner whether their car is driven or sits in a climate-controlled garage.<ref name=savvy>{{cite book|last =Mays|first=James C.|title=The Savvy Guide to Buying Collector Cars at Auction|publisher=Indy-Tech Publishing|year=2006|page=77|isbn=9780790613222}}</ref> His "Wow! Factor" includes examples of a bright red 1969 AMX that according to its owner "is just a fast Rambler", but draws more people at events than the more prestigious[[Ferrari]]s and [[Lamborghini]]s, as well as a "million-dollar moment" when a Rambler owner was serenaded with the "Beep Beep" song by [[The Playmates]] while fueling at a travel plaza.<ref name=savvy/> Moreover, the author's collector car, a 1969 Ambassador station wagon, made friends as strangers came to greet and host him as if "long lost kin".<ref>Mays, pp. 37–38.</ref> Mays points out the ready availability of parts for AMC engines and his experiences in having service done on Ramblers without being charged for the work in exchange for the experience of driving a "sassy Rambler" (a 1966 American convertible) and having pictures taken with it.<ref>Mays, pp. 39–40.</ref>
   
 
Other AMC models, once somewhat ignored by the hobby, are now considered "future collectibles". Examples include the 1959 Ambassador 4-door hardtop station wagon, of which only 578 were produced, and the Jeep Scrambler CJ8, a combined pickup truck-Jeep, of which only a few thousand were produced.
 
Other AMC models, once somewhat ignored by the hobby, are now considered "future collectibles". Examples include the 1959 Ambassador 4-door hardtop station wagon, of which only 578 were produced, and the Jeep Scrambler CJ8, a combined pickup truck-Jeep, of which only a few thousand were produced.
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==See also==
 
==See also==
*[[Amitron]] and [[Electron (vehicle)|Electron]] - Experimental battery powered city cars designed by American Motors.
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*[[Amitron]] and [[Electron (vehicle)|Electron]] - Experimental battery powered [[city car]]s designed by American Motors.
 
*[[AMC/Jeep Transmissions]]
 
*[[AMC/Jeep Transmissions]]
   
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