Tractor & Construction Plant Wiki

Toyota Prius, a hybrid vehicle. Museum of Toyota of Aichi Prefecture, Japan.

A Brazilian filling station with four alternative fuels for sale: biodiesel (B3), gasohol (E25), neat ethanol (E100), and compressed natural gas (CNG). Piracicaba, Brazil.

An alternative fuel vehicle is a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than "traditional" petroleum fuels (petrol or diesel); and also refers to any technology of powering an engine that does not involve solely petroleum (e.g. electric car, hybrid electric vehicles, solar powered). Because of a combination of factors, such as environmental concerns, high oil prices and the potential for peak oil, development of cleaner alternative fuels and advanced power systems for vehicles has become a high priority for many governments and vehicle manufacturers around the world.

Hybrid electric vehicles such as the Toyota Prius are not actually alternative fuel vehicles, but through advanced technologies in the electric battery and motor/generator, they make a more efficient use of petroleum fuel.[1] Other research and development efforts in alternative forms of power focus on developing all-electric and fuel cell vehicles, and even the stored energy of compressed air.

As of 2011 there were more than one billion vehicles in use in the world,[2][3] compared with around 70 million alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles that had been sold or converted worldwide as of December 2011, and made up mainly of:

  • 27.1 million flexible-fuel vehicles through December 2011, led by Brazil with 16.3 million,[4][5] followed by the United States with almost 10 million,[6] Canada (600,000),[7] and Europe, led by Sweden (228,522).[8] The Brazilian fleet includes 1.5 million flexible-fuel motorcycles sold since 2009.[9][10][11][9]
  • 17.5 million LPG powered vehicles by December 2010, led by Turkey with 2.39 million, Poland (2.32 million), and South Korea (2.3 million).[12]
  • 14.8 million natural gas vehicles by December 2011, led by Iran with 2.86 million, followed by Pakistan (2.85 million), Argentina (2.04 million), Brazil (1.7 million), and India (1.1 million).[13]
  • 5.7 million neat-ethanol only light-vehicles built in Brazil since 1979,[4] with 2.4 to 3.0 million vehicles still in use by 2004.[14][15]
  • More than 4.5 million hybrid electric vehicles sold through December 2011, led by the United States with 2.16 million units,[16][17] followed by Japan with more than 1.5 million hybrids.[18][19][20][21][22] Toyota Motor Company is the market leader with more than 3.5 million Lexus and Toyota hybrids sold worldwide,[23] followed by Honda Motor Co., Ltd. with cumulative sales of more than 800,000 hybrids,[24] and Ford Motor Corporation with more than 185,000 hybrids sold in the United States by December 2011.[16][17]
  • More than 530,000 plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) sold worldwide by December 2011. Most electric vehicles in the world roads are low-speed, low-range neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs), with about 479,000 NEVs on the road by 2011.[25] The world's top selling NEV is the GEM, with global sales of 45,000 units through December 2010.[26] The world's best selling highway-capable plug-in electric car is the Nissan Leaf all-electric car, with more than 21,000 units sold worldwide through December 2011,[27] followed by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV electric car, with global cumulative sales of more than 17,000 units through October 2011,[28] and the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid, with 8,272 units sold through December 2011 in the U.S. and Canada.[29][30][30][31] The United States and Japan are the world's largest highway-capable plug-in electric car markets as of December 2011. Since December 2010, around 18,000 plug-in electric cars have been sold in the U.S. through December 2011, led by the Nissan Leaf (9,693 units) and the Chevrolet Volt (7,997 units).[32] Since July 2009, more than 13,000 electric cars have been sold in Japan by November 2011, which includes more than 8,000 Leafs[33] and 5,000 i-MiEVs.[34]

An environmental analysis extends beyond just the operating efficiency and emissions. A life-cycle assessment of a vehicle involves production and post-use considerations. A cradle-to-cradle design is more important than a focus on a single factor such as the type of fuel.[35][36]

Single fuel source

Air engine

Main article: Compressed-air engine

The air engine is an emission-free piston engine that uses compressed air as a source of energy. The first compressed air car was invented by a French engineer named Guy Nègre. The expansion of compressed air may be used to drive the pistons in a modified piston engine. Efficiency of operation is gained through the use of environmental heat at normal temperature to warm the otherwise cold expanded air from the storage tank. This non-adiabatic expansion has the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of the machine. The only exhaust is cold air (−15 °C), which could also be used to air condition the car. The source for air is a pressurized carbon-fiber tank. Air is delivered to the engine via a rather conventional injection system. Unique crank design within the engine increases the time during which the air charge is warmed from ambient sources and a two stage process allows improved heat transfer rates.


Main article: Battery electric vehicle

General Motors EV1 electric car.

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs), also known as all-electric vehicles (AEVs), are electric vehicles whose main energy storage is in the chemical energy of batteries. BEVs are the most common form of what is defined by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as zero emission vehicle (ZEV) because they produce no tailpipe emissions at the point of operation. The electrical energy carried onboard a BEV to power the motors is obtained from a variety of battery chemistries arranged into battery packs. For additional range genset trailers or pusher trailers are sometimes used, forming a type of hybrid vehicle. Batteries used in electric vehicles include "flooded" lead-acid, absorbed glass mat, NiCd, nickel metal hydride, Li-ion, Li-poly and zinc-air batteries.

Attempts at building viable, modern battery-powered electric vehicles began in the 1950s with the introduction of the first modern (transistor controlled) electric car - the Henney Kilowatt, even though the concept was out in the market since 1890. Despite the poor sales of the early battery-powered vehicles, development of various battery-powered vehicles continued through the mids 1990s, with such models as the General Motors EV1 and the Toyota RAV4 EV.

The 2011 Nissan Leaf was introduced in Japan and the U.S. in December 2010, and in several European countries in early 2011.

Battery powered cars have primarily used lead-acid batteries and NiMH batteries. Lead-acid batteries' recharge capacity is considerably reduced if they're discharged beyond 75% on a regular basis, making them a less-than-ideal solution. NiMH batteries are a better choice, but are considerably more expensive than lead-acid. Lithium-ion battery powered vehicles such as the Venturi Fetish and the Tesla Roadster have recently demonstrated excellent performance and range, but they remain expensive, nevertheless is used in most mass production models launched in the late 2000s.

As of May 2011, several neighborhood electric vehicles, city electric cars and highway-capable electric cars are available in several countries, including the Tesla Roadster, GEM cars, REVAi, Buddy, Th!nk City, Mitsubishi i MiEV, Nissan Leaf, Smart ED, and Wheego Whip LiFe. Due to the premium price of electric cars because of the high cost of the battery pack, several countries and local governments have established tax credits and other incentives for early buyers of electric vehicles. Other models expected to reach the market between 2011 and 2012 include the CODA Sedan, REVA NXR, Renault Fluence Z.E., Ford Focus Electric, Hyundai BlueOn, Tesla Model S, and BMW ActiveE. There are also several pre-production models and plug-in conversions of existing models that are currently undergoing field trials or are part of demonstration programs including the Mini E, BYD e6, Audi A1 e-tron and Volvo C30 DRIVe Electric.


See also: Solar vehicle, Solar car racing, and List of solar car teams

Nuna team at a racecourse.

Nuna solar powered car, which has travelled up to 140km/h (84mph).

A solar car is an electric vehicle powered by solar energy obtained from solar panels on the car. Solar panels cannot currently be used to directly supply a car with a suitable amount of power at this time, but they can be used to extend the range of electric vehicles. They are raced in competitions such as the World Solar Challenge and the North American Solar Challenge. These events are often sponsored by Government agencies such as the United States Department of Energy keen to promote the development of alternative energy technology such as solar cells and electric vehicles. Such challenges are often entered by universities to develop their students engineering and technological skills as well as motor vehicle manufacturers such as GM and Honda.

Trev's battery lasts over 250,000 kilometres.

The North American Solar Challenge is a solar car race across North America. Originally called Sunrayce, organized and sponsored by General Motors in 1990, it was renamed American Solar Challenge in 2001, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Teams from universities in the United States and Canada compete in a long distance test of endurance as well as efficiency, driving thousands of miles on regular highways.

Nuna is the name of a series of manned solar powered vehicles that won the World solar challenge in Australia three times in a row, in 2001 (Nuna 1 or just Nuna), 2003 (Nuna 2) and 2005 (Nuna 3). The Nunas are built by students of the Delft University of Technology.

The World solar challenge is a solar powered car race over 3,021 kilometres (1,877 mi) through central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide. The race attracts teams from around the world, most of which are fielded by universities or corporations although some are fielded by high schools.

Trev (two-seater renewable energy vehicle) was designed by the staff and students at the University of South Australia. Trev was first displayed at the 2005 World Solar Challenge as the concept of a low-mass, efficient commuter car. With 3 wheels and a mass of about 300 kg, the prototype car had maximum speed of 120 km/h and acceleration of 0–100 km/h in about 10 seconds. The running cost of Trev is projected to be less than 1/10 of the running cost of a small petrol car.

Dimethyl ether fuel

Installation of BioDME synthesis towers at Chemrec's pilot facility

Dimethyl ether (DME) is a promising fuel in diesel engines,[37] petrol engines (30% DME / 70% LPG), and gas turbines owing to its high cetane number, which is 55, compared to diesel's, which is 40–53.[38][39] Only moderate modification are needed to convert a diesel engine to burn DME. The simplicity of this short carbon chain compound leads during combustion to very low emissions of particulate matter, NOx, CO. For these reasons as well as being sulfur-free, DME meets even the most stringent emission regulations in Europe (EURO5), U.S. (U.S. 2010), and Japan (2009 Japan).[40] Mobil is using DME in their methanol to gasoline process.

DME is being developed as a synthetic second generation biofuel (BioDME), which can be manufactured from lignocellulosic biomass.[41] Currently the EU is considering BioDME in its potential biofuel mix in 2030;[42] the Volvo Group is the coordinator for the European Community Seventh Framework Programme project BioDME[43][44] where Chemrec's BioDME pilot plant based on black liquor gasification is nearing completion in Piteå, Sweden.[45]

Ammonia fuelled vehicles

Ammonia GreenNH3 is being used with success by developers in Canada, since it can run in spark ignited or diesel engines with minor modifications,also the only green fuel to power jet engines,and despite its toxicity is reckoned to be no more dangerous than petrol or LPG.[46] It can be made from renewable electricity, and having half the density of petrol or diesel can be readily carried in sufficient quantities in vehicles. On combustion it has no emissions other than nitrogen and water vapour.[citation needed]


Main article: Biofuel

Bioalcohol / Ethanol

See also: Alcohol fuel, Ethanol fuel, Common ethanol fuel mixtures, Flexible-fuel vehicle, E85, and Biobutanol

The Ford Model T was the first commercial flex-fuel vehicle. The engine was capable of running on gasoline or ethanol, or a mix of both.

The 1996 Ford Taurus was the first flexible-fuel vehicle produced with versions capable of running with either ethanol (E85) or methanol (M85) blended with gasoline.

The 2003 VW Gol 1.6 Total Flex was the first commercial flexible-fuel vehicle in the Brazilian market, capable of running on any mixture of gasoline (E20 to E25 blend) and ethanol (E100).

The first commercial vehicle that used ethanol as a fuel was the Ford Model T, produced from 1908 through 1927. It was fitted with a carburetor with adjustable jetting, allowing use of gasoline or ethanol, or a combination of both.[47][48][49] Other car manufactures also provided engines for ethanol fuel use.[50] In the United States, alcohol fuel was produced in corn-alcohol stills until Prohibition criminalized the production of alcohol in 1919. The use of alcohol as a fuel for internal combustion engines, either alone or in combination with other fuels, lapsed until the oil price shocks of the 1970s. Furthermore, additional attention was gained because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuel.

Both ethanol and methanol have been used as an automotive fuel.[51] While both can be obtained from petroleum or natural gas, ethanol has attracted more attention because it is considered a renewable resource, easily obtained from sugar or starch in crops and other agricultural produce such as grain, sugarcane, sugar beets or even lactose. Since ethanol occurs in nature whenever yeast happens to find a sugar solution such as overripe fruit, most organisms have evolved some tolerance to ethanol, whereas methanol is toxic. Other experiments involve butanol, which can also be produced by fermentation of plants. Support for ethanol comes from the fact that it is a biomass fuel, which addresses climate change and greenhouse gas emissions, though these benefits are now highly debated,[50][52][53][54] including the heated 2008 food vs fuel debate.

Most modern cars are designed to run on gasoline are capable of running with a blend from 10% up to 15% ethanol mixed into gasoline (E10-E15). With a small amount of redesign, gasoline-powered vehicles can run on ethanol concentrations as high as 85% (E85), the maximum set in the United States and Europe due to cold weather during the winter,[55] or up to 100% (E100) in Brazil, with a warmer climate. Ethanol has close to 34% less energy per volume than gasoline,[56][57] consequently fuel economy ratings with ethanol blends are significantly lower than with pure gasoline, but this lower energy content does not translate directly into a 34% reduction in mileage, because there are many other variables that affect the performance of a particular fuel in a particular engine, and also because ethanol has a higher octane rating which is beneficial to high compression ratio engines.

For this reason, for pure or high ethanol blends to be attractive for users, its price must be lower than gasoline to offset the lower fuel economy. As a rule of thumb, Brazilian consumers are frequently advised by the local media to use more alcohol than gasoline in their mix only when ethanol prices are 30% lower or more than gasoline, as ethanol price fluctuates heavily depending on the results and seasonal harvests of sugar cane and by region.[58][59] In the US, and based on EPA tests for all 2006 E85 models, the average fuel economy for E85 vehicles was found 25.56% lower than unleaded gasoline.[50] The EPA-rated mileage of current American flex-fuel vehicles[60] could be considered when making price comparisons, though E85 has octane rating of about 104 and could be used as a substitute for premium gasoline. Regional retail E85 prices vary widely across the US, with more favorable prices in the Midwest region, where most corn is grown and ethanol produced. In August 2008 the US average spread between the price of E85 and gasoline was 16.9%, while in Indiana was 35%, 30% in Minnesota and Wisconsin, 19% in Maryland, 12 to 15% in California, and just 3% in Utah.[61] Depending of the vehicle capabilities, the break even price of E85 usually has to be between 25 to 30% lower than gasoline.[50] (See price comparisons for most states at

E85 fuel sold at a regular gasoline station in Washington, D.C..

Reacting to the high price of oil and its growing dependence on imports, in 1975 Brazil launched the Pro-alcool program, a huge government-subsidized effort to manufacture ethanol fuel (from its sugar cane crop) and ethanol-powered automobiles. These ethanol-only vehicles were very popular in the 1980s, but became economically impractical when oil prices fell - and sugar prices rose - late in that decade. In May 2003 Volkswagen built for the first time a commercial ethanol flexible fuel car, the Gol 1.6 Total Flex. These vehicles were a commercial success and by early 2009 other nine Brazilian manufacturers are producing flexible fuel vehicles: Chevrolet, Fiat, Ford, Peugeot, Renault, Honda, Mitsubishi, Toyota, Citroën, and Nissan.[4][62] The adoption of the flex technology was so rapid, that flexible fuel cars reached 87.6% of new car sales in July 2008.[63] As of August 2008, the fleet of "flex" automobiles and light commercial vehicles had reached 6 million new vehicles sold,[64] representing almost 19% of all registered light vehicles.[65] The rapid success of "flex" vehicles, as they are popularly known, was made possible by the existence of 33,000 filling stations with at least one ethanol pump available by 2006, a heritage of the Pro-alcool program.[66][67]

In the United States, initial support to develop alternative fuels by the government was also a response to the 1973 oil crisis, and later on, as a goal to improve air quality. Also, liquid fuels were preferred over gaseous fuels not only because they have a better volumetric energy density but also because they were the most compatible fuels with existing distribution systems and engines, thus avoiding a big departure from the existing technologies and taking advantage of the vehicle and the refueling infrastructure.[51] California led the search of sustainable alternatives with interest in methanol.[51] In 1996, a new FFV Ford Taurus was developed, with models fully capable of running either methanol or ethanol blended with gasoline.[51][68] This ethanol version of the Taurus was the first commercial production of a E85 FFV.[69] The momentum of the FFV production programs at the American car companies continued, although by the end of the 90's, the emphasis was on the FFV E85 version, as it is today.[51] Ethanol was preferred over methanol because there is a large support in the farming community and thanks to government's incentive programs and corn-based ethanol subsidies.[70] Sweden also tested both the M85 and the E85 flexifuel vehicles, but due to agriculture policy, in the end emphasis was given to the ethanol flexifuel vehicles.[71]


Main article: Biodiesel

Bus running on soybean biodiesel

Biodiesel (B20) pump in the U.S.

The main benefit of Diesel combustion engines is that they have a 44% fuel burn efficiency; compared with just 25-30% in the best gasoline engines.[72] In addition diesel fuel has slightly higher Energy Density by volume than gasoline. This makes Diesel engines capable of achieving much better fuel economy than gasoline vehicles.

Biodiesel (Fatty acid methyl ester), is commercially available in most oilseed-producing states in the United States. As of 2005, it is somewhat more expensive than fossil diesel, though it is still commonly produced in relatively small quantities (in comparison to petroleum products and ethanol). Many farmers who raise oilseeds use a biodiesel blend in tractors and equipment as a matter of policy, to foster production of biodiesel and raise public awareness. It is sometimes easier to find biodiesel in rural areas than in cities. Biodiesel has lower Energy Density than fossil diesel fuel, so biodiesel vehicles are not quite able to keep up with the fuel economy of a fossil fuelled diesel vehicle, if the diesel injection system is not reset for the new fuel. If the injection timing is changed to take account of the higher Cetane value of biodiesel, the difference in economy is negligible. Because biodiesel contains more oxygen than diesel or vegetable oil fuel, it produces the lowest emissions from diesel engines, and is lower in most emissions than gasoline engines. Biodiesel has a higher lubricity than mineral diesel and is an additive in European pump diesel for lubricity and emissions reduction.

Some Diesel-powered cars can run with minor modifications on 100% pure vegetable oils. Vegetable oils tend to thicken (or solidify if it is waste cooking oil), in cold weather conditions so vehicle modifications (a two tank system with diesel start/stop tank), are essential in order to heat the fuel prior to use under most circumstances. Heating to the temperature of engine coolant reduces fuel viscosity, to the range cited by injection system manufacturers, for systems prior to 'common rail' or 'unit injection ( VW PD)' systems. Waste vegetable oil, especially if it has been used for a long time, may become hydrogenated and have increased acidity. This can cause the thickening of fuel, gumming in the engine and acid damage of the fuel system. Biodiesel does not have this problem, because it is chemically processed to be PH neutral and lower viscosity. Modern low emission diesels (most often Euro -3 and -4 compliant), typical of the current production in the European industry, would require extensive modification of injector system, pumps and seals etc. due to the higher operating pressures, that are designed thinner (heated) mineral diesel than ever before, for atomisation, if they were to use pure vegetable oil as fuel. Vegetable oil fuel is not suitable for these vehicles as they are currently produced. This reduces the market as increasing numbers of new vehicles are not able to use it. However, the German Elsbett company has successfully produced single tank vegetable oil fuel systems for several decades, and has worked with Volkswagen on their TDI engines. This shows that it is technologically possible to use vegetable oil as a fuel in high efficiency / low emission diesel engines.

Greasestock is an event held yearly in Yorktown Heights, New York, and is one of the largest showcases of vehicles using waste oil as a biofuel in the United States.[73][74][75][76]


Main article: Biogas

Compressed Biogas may be used for Internal Combustion Engines after purification of the raw gas. The removal of H2O, H2S and particles can be seen as standard producing a gas which has the same quality as Compressed Natural Gas. The use of biogas is particularly interesting for climates where the waste heat of a biogas powered power plant cannot be used during the summer.[46][77]


In the 1930s Tang Zhongming made an invention using abundant charcoal resources for Chinese auto market. The Charcoal-fuelled car was later used intensively in China, serving the army and conveyancer after the breakout of World War II.

CNG Compressed Natural Gas

Main article: Natural gas vehicle

The Brazilian Fiat Siena Tetrafuel 1.4, the first multifuel car that runs as a flexible-fuel on pure gasoline, or E25, or E100; or runs as a bi-fuel with natural gas (CNG).

High pressure compressed natural gas, mainly composed of methane, that is used to fuel normal combustion engines instead of gasoline. Combustion of methane produces the least amount of CO2 of all fossil fuels. Gasoline cars can be retrofitted to CNG and become bifuel Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) as the gasoline tank is kept. The driver can switch between CNG and gasoline during operation. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are popular in regions or countries where natural gas is abundant. Widespread use began in the Po River Valley of Italy, and later became very popular in New Zealand by the eighties, though its use has declined.[78]

Buses powered with CNG are common in the United States.

As of December 2011, there were 14.8 million natural gas vehicles worldwide, led by Iran with 2.86 million, followed closely by Pakistan (2.85 million), Argentina (2.07 million), Brazil (1.70 million), and India (1.10 million).[13] As of 2010, the Asia-Pacific region led the global market with a share of 54%.[79] In Europe they are popular in Italy (730,000), Ukraine (200,000), Armenia (101,352), Russia (100,000) and Germany (91,500),[79] and they are becoming more so as various manufacturers produce factory made cars, buses, vans and heavy vehicles.[77] In the United States CNG powered buses are the favorite choice of several public transit agencies, with an estimated CNG bus fleet of some 130,000.[80] Other countries where CNG-powered buses are popular include India, Australia, Argentina, and Germany.[78]

CNG vehicles are common in South America, where these vehicles are mainly used as taxicabs in main cities of Argentina and Brazil. Normally, standard gasoline vehicles are retrofitted in specialized shops, which involve installing the gas cylinder in the trunk and the CNG injection system and electronics. The Brazilian GNV fleet is concentrated in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.[81] Pike Research reports that almost 90% of NGVs in Latin America havebi-fuel engines, allowing these vehicles to run on either gasoline or CNG.[82]

In 2006 the Brazilian subsidiary of FIAT introduced the Fiat Siena Tetra fuel, a four-fuel car developed under Magneti Marelli of Fiat Brazil.[83][84] This automobile can run on 100% ethanol (E100), E25 (Brazil's normal ethanol gasoline blend), pure gasoline (not available in Brazil), and natural gas, and switches from the gasoline-ethanol blend to CNG automatically, depending on the power required by road conditions.[85] Other existing option is to retrofit an ethanol flexible-fuel vehicle to add a natural gas tank and the corresponding injection system. Some taxicabs in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, run on this option, allowing the user to choose among three fuels (E25, E100 and CNG) according to current market prices at the pump. Vehicles with this adaptation are known in Brazil as "tri-fuel" cars.[86]


Main article: Hydrogen vehicle

The 2009 Honda FCX Clarity is an hydrogen fuel cell automobile launched to the market in 2008.

Hydrogen fueling station in California.

Sequel, a hydrogen fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors.

A hydrogen car is an automobile which uses hydrogen as its primary source of power for locomotion. These cars generally use the hydrogen in one of two methods: combustion or fuel-cell conversion. In combustion, the hydrogen is "burned" in engines in fundamentally the same method as traditional gasoline cars. In fuel-cell conversion, the hydrogen is turned into electricity through fuel cells which then powers electric motors. With either method, the only byproduct from the spent hydrogen is water.

Honda introduced its fuel cell vehicle in 1999 called the FCX and have since then introduced the second generation FCX Clarity. Limited marketing of the FCX Clarity, based on the 2007 concept model, began in June 2008 in the United States, and it was introduced in Japan in November 2008.[87] The FCX Clarity is available in the U.S. only in Los Angeles Area, where 16 hydrogen filling stations are available, and until July 2009, only 10 drivers have leased the Clarity for US$600 a month.[88] Honda stated that it could start mass producing vehicles based on the FCX concept by the year 2020.[88]

A small number of prototype hydrogen cars currently exist, and a significant amount of research is underway to make the technology more viable. The common internal combustion engine, usually fueled with gasoline (petrol) or diesel liquids, can be converted to run on gaseous hydrogen. However, the most efficient use of hydrogen involves the use of fuel cells and electric motors instead of a traditional engine. Hydrogen reacts with oxygen inside the fuel cells, which produces electricity to power the motors. One primary area of research is hydrogen storage, to try to increase the range of hydrogen vehicles while reducing the weight, energy consumption, and complexity of the storage systems. Two primary methods of storage are metal hydrides and compression. Some believe that hydrogen cars will never be economically viable and that the emphasis on this technology is a diversion from the development and popularization of more efficient hybrid cars and other alternative technologies.[citation needed]

High speed cars, buses, motorcycles, bicycles, submarines, and space rockets already run on hydrogen, in various forms. There is even a working toy model car that runs on solar power, using a reversible fuel cell to store energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygen gas. It can then convert the fuel back into water to release the solar energy.[citation needed]

BMW's Clean Energy internal combustion hydrogen car has more power and is faster than hydrogen fuel cell electric cars. A limited series production of the 7 Series Saloon was announced as commencing at the end of 2006. A BMW hydrogen prototype (H2R) using the driveline of this model broke the speed record for hydrogen cars at 300 km/h (186 mi/h), making automotive history. Mazda has developed Wankel engines to burn hydrogen. The Wankel uses a rotary principle of operation, so the hydrogen burns in a different part of the engine from the intake. This reduces pre-detonation, a problem with hydrogen fueled piston engines.[citation needed]

The other major car companies like Daimler, Chrysler, Honda, Toyota, Ford and General Motors, are investing in hydrogen fuel cells instead. VW, Nissan, and Hyundai/Kia also have fuel cell vehicle prototypes on the road. In addition, transit agencies across the globe are running prototype fuel cell buses. Fuel cell vehicles, such as the new Honda Clarity, can get up to 70 miles (110 km) on a kilogram of hydrogen.[citation needed]

Liquid nitrogen car

Main article: Liquid nitrogen vehicle

Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is a method of storing energy. Energy is used to liquify air, and then LN2 is produced by evaporation, and distributed. LN2 is exposed to ambient heat in the car and the resulting nitrogen gas can be used to power a piston or turbine engine. The maximum amount of energy that can be extracted from 1 kg of LN2 is 213 W-hr or 173 W-hr per liter, in which a maximum of 70 W-hr can be utilized with an isothermal expansion process. Such a vehicle can achieve ranges similar to that of gasoline with a 350 liter (90 gallon) tank. Theoretical future engines, using cascading topping cycles, can improve this to around 110 W-hr/kg with a quasi-isothermal expansion process. The advantages are zero harmful emissions and superior energy densities compared to a Compressed-air vehicle, and a car powered by LN2 can be refilled in a matter of minutes.

LPG or Autogas

Main article: Autogas

A propane-fueled school bus in the United States.

LPG or liquified petroleum gas is a low pressure liquified gas mixture composed mainly of propane and butane which burns in conventional gasoline combustion engines with less CO2 than gasoline. Gasoline cars can be retrofitted to LPG aka Autogas and become bifuel vehicles as the gasoline tank stays. You can switch between LPG and gasoline during operation. Estimated 10 million vehicles running worldwide.

There are 17.473 million LPG powered vehicles worldwide as of December 2010, and the leading countries are Turkey (2.394 million vehicles), Poland (2.325 million), and South Korea (2.3 million).[12] In the U.S., 190,000 on-road vehicles use propane,[89] and 450,000 forklifts use it for power.

Hyundai Motor Company began sales of the Elantra LPI Hybrid in the South Korean domestic market in July 2009. The Elantra LPI (Liquefied Petroleum Injected) is the world's first hybrid electric vehicle to be powered by an internal combustion engine built to run on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a fuel.[90][91]


The Stanley Steam Car

Main article: Steam car

A steam car is a car that has a steam engine. Wood, coal, ethanol, or others can be used as fuel. The fuel is burned in a boiler and the heat converts water into steam. When the water turns to steam, it expands. The expansion creates pressure. The pressure pushes the pistons back and forth. This turns the driveshaft to spin the wheels forward. It works like a coal-fueled steam train, or steam boat. The steam car was the next logical step in independent transport.

Steam cars take a long time to start, but some can reach speeds over 100 mph (161 km/h) eventually. the late model doble could be brought to operational condition in less than 30 seconds, and were fast, with high acceleration, but they were ridiculously expensive.

A steam engine uses external combustion, as opposed to internal combustion. Gasoline-powered cars are more efficient at about 25-28% efficiency. In theory, a combined cycle steam engine in which the burning material is first used to drive a gas turbine can produce 50% to 60% efficiency. However, practical examples of steam engined cars work at only around 5-8% efficiency.

The best known and best selling steam-powered car was the Stanley Steamer. It used a compact fire-tube boiler under the hood to power a simple two-piston engine which was connected directly to the rear axle. Before Henry Ford introduced monthly payment financing with great success, cars were typically purchased outright. This is why the Stanley was kept simple; to keep the purchase price affordable.

Steam produced in refrigeration also can be use by a turbine in other vehicle types to produce electricity, that can be employed in electric motors or stored in a battery.

Steam power can be combined with a standard oil-based engine to create a hybrid. Water is injected into the cylinder after the fuel is burned, when the piston is still superheated, often at temperatures of 1500 degrees or more. The water will instantly be vaporized into steam, taking advantage of the heat that would otherwise be wasted.

Wood gas

Vehicle with a gasifier

Main article: Wood gas

Wood gas can be used to power cars with ordinary internal combustion engines if a wood gasifier is attached. This was quite popular during World War II in several European and Asian countries for cars, light commercials and tractors, because the war prevented easy and cost-effective access to oil. They were used in both Germany and the UK.

Today people in the USA and Europe are converting vehicles to run on what is a virtually free source of fuel, as waste material is used as a source of wood for the units.

Multiple fuel source

Flexible fuel

Six typical Brazilian full flex-fuel models from several carmakers, popularly known as "flex" cars, that run on any blend of ethanol and gasoline(actually between E20-E25 to E100).

Main article: Flexible-fuel vehicle
See also: Neat ethanol vehicle

A flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV) or dual-fuel vehicle is an alternative fuel automobile or light duty truck with a multifuel engine that can use more than one fuel, usually mixed in the same tank, and the blend is burned in the combustion chamber together. These vehicles are colloquially called flex-fuel, or flexifuel in Europe, or just flex in Brazil. FFVs are distinguished from bi-fuel vehicles, where two fuels are stored in separate tanks. The most common commercially available FFV in the world market is the ethanol flexible-fuel vehicle, with the major markets concentrated in the United States, Brazil, Sweden, and some other European countries. In addition to flex-fuel vehicles running with ethanol, in the US and Europe there were successful test programs with methanol flex-fuel vehicles, known as M85 FFVs, and more recently there have been also successful tests using p-series fuels with E85 flex fuel vehicles, but as of June 2008, this fuel is not yet available to the general public.

Ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles have standard gasoline engines that are capable of running with ethanol and gasoline mixed in the same tank. These mixtures have "E" numbers which describe the percentage of ethanol in the mixture, for example, E85 is 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. (See common ethanol fuel mixtures for more information.) Though technology exists to allow ethanol FFVs to run on any mixture up to E100,[50][92] in the U.S. and Europe, flex-fuel vehicles are optimized to run on E85. This limit is set to avoid cold starting problems during very cold weather. The alcohol content might be reduced during the winter, to E70 in the U.S. or to E75 in Sweden. Brazil, with a warmer climate, developed vehicles that can run on any mix up to E100, though E20-E25 is the mandatory minimum blend, and no pure gasoline is sold in the country.

By December 2010 cumulative global sales of flexible-fuel vehicles have reached around 22.6 million units, led by Brazil with 12 million automobiles and light trucks, and 515,726 flexible-fuel motorcycles,[4][10][11] followed by the United States with 9.3 million,[93] Canada (600,000),[7] and Europe, led by Sweden (216,975).[8] In Brazil, 65% of flex-fuel owners use ethanol fuel regularly in 2009,[94] while, the actual number of American FFVs being run on E85 is much lower; surveys conducted in the U.S. have found that 68% of American flex-fuel car owners were not aware they owned an E85 flex.[50] This is thought to be due to a number of factors, including:

Typical labeling used in the US to identify E85 vehicles. Top left: a small sticker in the back of the fuel filler door. Bottom left: the bright yellow gas cap used in newer models. E85 Flexfuel badging used in newer models from Chrysler (top right), Ford (middle right) and GM (bottom right).

  • The appearance of flex-fuel and non-flex-fuel vehicles is identical;
  • There is no price difference between a pure-gasoline vehicle and its flex-fuel variant;
  • The lack of consumer awareness of flex-fuel vehicles;
  • The lack of promotion of flex-fuel vehicles by American automakers, who often do not label the cars or market them in the same way they do to hybrid cars

By contrast, automakers selling FFVs in Brazil commonly affix badges advertising the car as a flex-fuel vehicle. As of 2007, new FFV models sold in the U.S. were required to feature a yellow gas cap emblazoned with the label "E85/gasoline", in order to remind drivers of the cars' flex-fuel capabilities.[95][96] Use of E85 in the U.S. is also affected by the relatively low number of E85 filling stations in operation across the country, with just over 1,750 in August 2008,[97] most of which are concentrated in the Corn Belt states, led by Minnesota with 353 stations, followed by Illinois with 181, and Wisconsin with 114.[98] By comparison, there are some 120,000 stations providing regular non-ethanol gasoline in the United States alone.[99]

US E85FlexFuel Chevrolet Impala LT 2009.

There have been claims that American automakers are motivated to produce flex-fuel vehicles due to a loophole in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) requirements, which gives the automaker a "fuel economy credit" for every flex-fuel vehicle sold, whether or not the vehicle is actually fueled with E85 in regular use.[67] This loophole allegedly allows the U.S. auto industry to meet CAFE fuel economy targets not by developing more, more fuel-efficient models, but by spending between $100 and $200 extra per vehicle to produce a certain number of flex-fuel models, enabling them to continue selling less fuel-efficient vehicles such as SUVs, which netted higher profit margins than smaller, more fuel-efficient cars.[100][101]

In the United States, E85 FFVs are equipped with sensor that automatically detect the fuel mixture, signaling the ECU to tune spark timing and fuel injection so that fuel will burn cleanly in the vehicle's internal combustion engine. Originally, the sensors were mounted in the fuel line and exhaust system; more recent models do away with the fuel line sensor. Another feature of older flex-fuel cars is a small separate gasoline storage tank that was used for starting the car on cold days, when the ethanol mixture made ignition more difficult.

The Honda CG 150 Titan Mix was the first flex-fuel motorcycle launched to the market in the world.

Modern Brazilian flex-fuel technology enables FFVs to run an any blend between E20-E25 gasohol and E100 ethanol fuel, using a lambda probe to measure the quality of combustion, which informs the engine control unit as to the exact composition of the gasoline-alcohol mixture. This technology, developed by the Brazilian subsidiary of Bosch in 1994, and further improved and commercially implemented in 2003 by the Italian subsidiary of Magneti Marelli, is known as "Software Fuel Sensor". The Brazilian subsidiary of Delphi Automotive Systems developed a similar technology, known as "Multifuel", based on research conducted at its facility in Piracicaba, São Paulo.[102] This technology allows the controller to regulate the amount of fuel injected and spark time, as fuel flow needs to be decreased to avoid detonation due to the high compression ratio (around 12:1) used by flex-fuel engines.

The first flex motorcycle was launched by Honda in March 2009. Produced by its Brazilian subsidiary Moto Honda da Amazônia, the CG 150 Titan Mix is sold for around US$2,700.[103][104][105][106] Because the motorcycle does not have a secondary gas tank for a cold start like the Brazilian flex cars do, the tank must have at least 20% of gasoline to avoid start up problems at temperatures below 15°C (59°F). The motorcycle’s panel includes a gauge to warn the driver about the actual ethanol-gasoline mix in the storage tank.[106][107]


The Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid has an all-electric range of 15 miles (24 km).

The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in hybrid able to run in all-electric mode for 35 miles (56 km)

The Sinclair C5 pedal-assisted battery vehicle.

Main article: Hybrid vehicle

A hybrid vehicle uses multiple propulsion systems to provide motive power. The most common type of hybrid vehicle is the gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles, which use gasoline (petrol) and electric batteries for the energy used to power internal-combustion engines (ICEs) and electric motors. These motors are usually relatively small and would be considered "underpowered" by themselves, but they can provide a normal driving experience when used in combination during acceleration and other maneuvers that require greater power.

The Toyota Prius first went on sale in Japan in 1997 and it is sold worldwide since 2000. By 2010 the Prius is sold in more than 70 countries and regions, with Japan and the United States as its largest markets.[108] In May 2008, global cumulative Prius sales reached the 1 million units, and by September 2010, the Prius reached worldwide cumulative sales of 2 million units.[108] The United States is the largest hybrid market in the world, with more than 2 million hybrid automobiles and SUVs sold through May 2011.[109] The Prius is the top selling hybrid car in the U.S. with 1 million units sold by April 2011.[110]

The Honda Insight is a two-seater hatchback hybrid automobile manufactured by Honda. It was the first mass-produced hybrid automobile sold in the United States, introduced in 1999, and produced until 2006.[111][112] Honda introduced the second-generation Insight in Japan in February 2009, and the new Insight went on sale in the U.S. on April 22, 2009.[113][114] Honda also offers the Honda Civic Hybrid since 2002.

Among others, the following are popular gasoline-electric hybrid models available in the market by 2009: Ford Escape Hybrid, Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra Hybrid, Lexus RX 400h, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Mercury Mariner Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Saturn Vue Green Line, Lexus LS600hL, Mazda Tribute Hybrid, Nissan Altima Hybrid, Ford Fusion/Mercury Milan Hybrid, and Mercedes S400 BlueHybrid.

Several major carmakers are currently developing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Chinese battery manufacturer and automaker BYD Auto released the F3DM PHEV-68 (PHEV109km) hatchback to the Chinese fleet market on December 15, 2008.[115][116] The 2011 Chevrolet Volt is the first mass produced PHEV launched in the United States, and it was introduced in November 2010.[117][118] Other PHEVs undergoing field testing as of December 2010 include the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid, Volvo V70 Plug-in Hybrid, and Suzuki Swift Plug-in.

The Elantra LPI Hybrid, launched in the South Korean domestic market in July 2009, is a hybrid vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine built to run on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a fuel. The Elantra PLI is a mild hybrid and the first hybrid to adopt advanced lithium polymer (Li–Poly) batteries.[90][91]

Pedal-assisted electric hybrid vehicle

In very small vehicles, the power demand decreases, so human power can be employed to make a significant improvement in battery life. Two such commercially made vehicles are the Sinclair C5 and the TWIKE.

See also

Portal-puzzle.svg Energy portal
  • Alternative Fuels Training Consortium
  • Alternatives to the automobile
  • Clean Cities
  • Future of the car
  • Hydrogen vehicle
  • List of 2007 Hybrid Vehicles
  • Solar-charged vehicle
  • The Hype about Hydrogen
  • Water-fuelled car (urban legend)
  • Jack Talbert (Vaporization)


  1. "Revealed - how the hybrid car "works" | Claverton Group". (2009-02-24). Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  2. "Automobiles and Truck Trends". Plunkett Research. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved on 2011-08-18.
  3. John Sousanis (2011-08-15). "World Vehicle Population Tops 1 Billion Units", Ward AutoWorld. Retrieved on 2011-08-18. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Anúario da Industria Automobilistica Brasileira 2011: Tabela 2.3 Produção por combustível - 1957/2010" (in Portuguese). ANFAVEA - Associação Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veículos Automotores (Brasil). Retrieved on 2012-01-22. pp. 62-63.
  5. Renavam/Denatran (January 2012). "Licenciamento total de automóveis e comerciais leves por combustível" (in Portuguese). ANFAVEA. Retrieved on 2012-01-21. Carta de ANFAVEA 308 pp. 4.
  6. Jim Motavalli (2012-03-01). "Flex-Fuel Amendment Makes for Strange Bedfellows", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2012-03-18. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Kathryn Young (2008-02-23). "Biofuels help environment, but they're hard to find". The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved on 2008-09-16. As of 2008
  8. 8.0 8.1 BAFF. "Bought ethanol cars". BioAlcohol Fuel Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved on 2011-08-29. As of December 2011, see Graph "Bought flexifuel vehicles"
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Produção Motocicletas 2011" (in Portuguese). ABRACICLO. Retrieved on 2012-01-21.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Abraciclo (2010-01-27). "Motos flex foram as mais vendidas em 2009 na categoria 150cc" (in Portuguese). UNICA. Retrieved on 2010-02-10.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Produção Motocicletas 2010" (in Portuguese). ABRACICLO. Retrieved on 2011-02-05.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "WLPGA: The Autogas Market". World LP Gas Association. Retrieved on 2012-02-23. See table: Largest autogas markets, 2010
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Worldwide NGV Statistics". NGV Journal. Retrieved on 2012-01-24.
  14. Alfred Szwarc. "Abstract: Use of Bio-fuels in Brazil". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. Retrieved on 2009-10-24.
  15. Luiz A. Horta Nogueira (2004-03-22). "Perspectivas de un Programa de Biocombustibles en América Central: Proyecto Uso Sustentable de Hidrocarburos" (PDF) (in Spanish). Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL). Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved on 2008-05-09.
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs): Trend of sales by HEV models from 1999-2010". Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center (U.S. DoE). Retrieved on 2011-03-05. Total registered electric hybrids in the U.S. is 1,888,971 vehicles until December 2010. (Click and open the Excel file for the detail by year for each model) Sales 1999-2010
  17. 17.0 17.1 "December 2011 Dashboard: Sales Still Climbing". (2012-01-09). Retrieved on 2012-01-10.
  18. "Sales in Japan of TMC Hybrids Top 1 Million Units". ToyotaNews releases (2010-08-05). Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved on 2010-08-07.
  19. "Passenger car sales ranking 2010" (in Japanese). Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. Retrieved on 2012-02-02. A total of 315,669 Prius were sold in 2011, and 110,787 units between August and December 2010
  20. "Passenger car sales ranking 2011" (in Japanese). Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. Retrieved on 2012-02-02. A total of 252,528 Prius and 20,704 Lexus CT200H were sold in 2011
  21. "Honda’s Cumulative World-wide Hybrid Sales Pass 300,000 In January 2009". Green Car Congress (2009-02-19). Retrieved on 2010-03-09. A total of 25,239 Honda hybrids sold in Japan until January 2009
  22. "Sales of Honda Insight hybrid top 100,000 units since February 2009" (2010-03-04). Retrieved on 2010-03-11.
  23. Toyota Motor Europe (2012-01-04). "Toyota leads industry with lowest fleet-wide CO2 average in Europe". Toyota Europe News. Retrieved on 2012-01-22.
  24. "Honda’s cumulative worldwide hybrid vehicle sales passed 800,000 units at the end of December". Green Car Congress (2012-01-20). Retrieved on 2012-01-22.
  25. Danny King (2011-06-20). "Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Sales To Climb". Auto Observer. Retrieved on 2012-02-05.
  26. "Chrysler launches the 2011 GEM line". Green Car Congress (2011-01-07). Retrieved on 2011-04-04.
  27. Nissan (2012-01-04). "U.S. Auto Sales: Nissan sales up 7.7% % in December; 2011 volume up 17.3%", Inautonews. Retrieved on 2012-01-04. 
  28. Scott Doggett (2011-11-18). "Mitsubishi EV Earns Top EPA MPG Rank". Retrieved on 2011-11-30.
  29. "GM U.S. Deliveries for December 2011 by Model". General Motors (2012-01-04). Retrieved on 2012-01-04.
  30. 30.0 30.1 "December 2010 Dashboard: Year End Tally". (2011-01-07). Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  31. GM Canada (2012-01-04). "Sales and Production - General Motors December and 2011 Sales". General Motors. Retrieved on 2012-01-04.
  32. Danny King (2012-01-06). "2011 U.S. alt-fuel vehicle sales: a mix of ups and downs". Autoblog Green. Retrieved on 2012-01-07.
  33. Brad Berman (2011-11-17). "Global Nissan LEAF SalesEclipse 17,000". Retrieved on 2011-12-04.
  34. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (2011-11-24). "Mitsubishi Motors to Launch New MINICAB-MiEV Commercial Electric Vehicle in Japan". MMC Press Release. Retrieved on 2011-12-06.
  35., Nycomb Chemicals company
  38., Conference on the Development and Promotion of Environmentally Friendly Heavy Duty Vehicles such as DME Trucks, Washington DC, March 17, 2006
  40. Biofuels in the European Union, 2006
  43. Chemrec press release September 9, 2010
  44. 46.0 46.1 Green NH3. "". Archived from the original on 28 October 2010. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  45. Hunt, V, D, The Gasohol Handbook, Industrial Press Inc., 1981, pp 9, 420,421, 442
  46. English, Andrew (2008-07-25). "Ford Model T reaches 100", The Telegraph. Retrieved on 2008-08-11. 
  47. "Ethanol: Introduction". Journey to Forever. Archived from the original on 10 August 2008. Retrieved on 2008-08-11.
  48. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 50.4 50.5 Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007), Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and Sustainable Farming for Energy Independence, Prairie Oak Publishing, Maryville, Missouri. pp. 56–61. ISBN 978-0-9786293-0-4. 
  49. 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 51.4 Roberta J Nichols (2003). "The Methanol Story: A Sustainable Fuel for the Future" (PDF). Methanol Institute. Retrieved on 2008-08-30.
  50. "Another Inconvenient Truth" (PDF). Oxfam (2008-06-28). Archived from the original on 19 August 2008. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.[dead link]Oxfam Briefing Paper 114.
  51. Timothy Searchinger et al. (2008-02-29), "Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change", Science 319(5867): 1238–1240. PMID 18258860. doi: 10.1126/science.1151861 , Retrieved on .  Originally published online in Science Express on 7 February 2008. See Letters to Science by Wang and Haq. There are critics to these findings for assuming a worst case scenario.
  52. Fargione et al.; Hill, J; Tilman, D; Polasky, S; Hawthorne, P (2008-02-29), "Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt", Science 319(5867): 1235–1238. PMID 18258862. doi: 10.1126/science.1152747 , Retrieved on .  Originally published online in Science Express on 7 February 2008. There are rebuttals to these findings for assuming a worst case scenario
  53. Ethanol Promotion and Information Council (2007-02-27). "When is E85 not 85 percent ethanol? When it’s E70 with an E85 sticker on it". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved on 2008-08-19.
  54. site
  55. Alternative Fuel Efficiencies in Miles per Gallon
  56. JB Online (2007-11-20). "Álcool ou Gasolina? Saiba qual escolher quando for abastecer" (in Portuguese). Opinaoweb. Retrieved on 2008-08-24.
  57. InfoMoney (2007-05-30). "Saiba o que fazer para economizar gasolina" (in Portuguese). IGF. Retrieved on 2008-08-24.
  58. "EPA Mileage". Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  59. "Reported E85 Prices-Last 30 days". Archived from the original on 12 September 2008. Retrieved on 2008-09-18.
  60. "Livina, primeiro carro flex da Nissan chega com preços entre R$ 46.690 e R$ 56.690" (in Portuguese). Car Magazine Online (2009-03-18). Retrieved on 2009-03-26.
  61. Reuters (2008-08-06). "Vendas de veículos flex no Brasil sobem 31,1% em julho 2008" (in Portuguese). Hoje Notícias. Retrieved on 2008-08-13.
  62. "Veículos flex somam 6 milhões e alcançam 23% da frota" (in Portuguese). Folha Online (2008-08-04). Retrieved on 2008-08-12.
  63. "DENATRAN Frota por tipo/UF 2008 (file 2008-03)" (in Portuguese). Departamento Nacional de Trânsito. Retrieved on 2008-05-03. As of March 31st, 2008, DENATRAN reports a total fleet of 50 million, including motorcycles, trucks and special equipment, and 32 million automobiles and light commercial vehicles.
  64. Daniel Budny and Paulo Sotero, editor (2007-04). "Brazil Institute Special Report: The Global Dynamics of Biofuels" (PDF). Brazil Institute of the Woodrow Wilson Center. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved on 2008-05-03.
  65. 67.0 67.1 Inslee, Jay; Bracken Hendricks (2007), Apollo's Fire, Island Press, Washington, D.C.. pp. 153–155, 160–161. ISBN 978-1-59726-175-3.  See Chapter 6. Homegrown Energy.
  66. Green Car Journal Editors (1994). "Cars On Alcohol, Part 9: Corn Based Ethanol in the US". Green Car. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved on 2008-08-31.
  67. Paul Dever (January 1996). "Alternative Fuel Ford Taurus". The Auto Channel. Retrieved on 2008-08-14. Original source: 1996 North American International Auto Show Press Release
  68. Green Car Journal Editors (1995). "Cars On Alcohol, Part 13: GM Supports FlexFuel". Green Car. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved on 2008-08-31.
  69. Maria Grahn (2004). "Why is ethanol given emphasis over methanol in Sweden?" (PDF). Chalmers University of Technology. Archived from the original on 2005-04-28. Retrieved on 2008-08-31.
  70. Engine efficiency
  71. Norman, Jim. "Where There’s Never an Oil Shortage". New York Times. May 13, 2007.
  72. Tillman, Adriane. "Greasestock Festival returns, bigger and better". May 14, 2008.
  73. "Greasestock 2008". Greasestock. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
  74. Max, Josh. "Gas-guzzlers become veggie delights at Greasestock in Yorktown Heights". Daily News. May 13, 2008.
  75. 77.0 77.1 "Bio-methane fuelled vehicles - John Baldwin CNG Services | Claverton Group". Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  76. 78.0 78.1 Sperling, Daniel and Deborah Gordon (2009), Two billion cars: driving toward sustainability, Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-0-19-537664-7. 
  77. 79.0 79.1 "Natural Gas Vehicle Statistics: Summary Data 2010". International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved on 2011-08-02. Click on Summary Data (2010).
  78. "Pakistan Hits One-Million Natural Gas Vehicle Mark". Green Car Congres (2006-05-13). Retrieved on 2008-10-17.
  79. GNVNews (November 2006). "Montadores Investem nos Carros á GNV" (in Portuguese). Institutio Brasileiro de Petroleo e Gas. Retrieved on 2008-09-20.
  80. Pike Research (2011-09-14). "Pike Research predicts 68% jump in global CNG vehicle sales by 2016". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved on 2011-09-26. See details in Press Release
  81. Christine Lepisto (2006-08-27). "Fiat Siena Tetra Power: Your Choice of Four Fuels". Treehugger. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved on 2008-08-24.
  82. "Nouvelle Fiat Siena 2008: sans complexe" (in French). Caradisiac (2007-11-01). Retrieved on 2008-08-31.
  83. Agência AutoInforme (2006-06-19). "Siena Tetrafuel vai custar R$ 41,9 mil" (in Portuguese). WebMotor. Retrieved on 2008-08-14. The article argues that even though Fiat called it tetra fuel, it actually runs on three fuels: natural gas, ethanol, and gasoline.
  84. TaxiNews. "Gás Natural Veicular" (in Portuguese). Retrieved on 2008-08-24.
  85. Honda Motor Company (16 June 2008). "Honda Announces First FCX Clarity Customers and World’s First Fuel Cell Vehicle Dealership Network as Clarity Production Begins". Retrieved on 2009-06-01.
  86. 88.0 88.1 Bloomberg News (2009-08-24). "Hydrogen-powered vehicles on horizon", Washington Post. Retrieved on 2009-09-05. 
  87. "Propane FAQ". Retrieved on 2011-04-25.
  88. 90.0 90.1 "Hyundai Elantra LPi hybrid official press release". Hyundai (2009-07-10). Retrieved on 2010-03-23.
  89. 91.0 91.1 "Hyundai Unveils Elantra LPI HEV at Seoul Motor Show". Hyundai Global News (2009-04-02). Retrieved on 2010-03-23.
  90. Clean Cities (June 2008). "Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Fact Sheet)" (PDF). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2008-08-24.
  91. National Renewable Energy Laboratory USDoE (2010-05-24). "Data, Analysis and Trends: E85 FFVs in Use in U.S. (1998-2009)". Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center. Retrieved on 2010-08-08. Trend of total FFVs in use from 1998-2008, based on FFV production rates and life expectancy Click to download the Excel file.
  92. Wagner Oliveira (2009-09-30). "Etanol é usado em 65% da frota flexível" (in Portuguese), Diario do Grande ABC. Retrieved on 2009-10-18. 
  93. Ken Thomas (2007-05-07). "'Flex-fuel' vehicles touted". USA Today. Retrieved on 2008-09-15.
  94. Christine Gable and Scott Gable. "Yellow E85 gas cap". Hybrid Cars & Alt Fuels. Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved on 2008-09-18.
  95. National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (2008-09-08). "New E85 Stations". NEVC FYI Newsletter (Vol 14 issue 15). Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved on 2008-09-15.
  96. National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (2008-08-08). "New E85 Stations". NEVC FYI Newsletter (Vol 14 no. 13). Retrieved on 2008-08-19. For a complete and updated listing, go to
  97. "2002 Economic Census: Retail Trade - United States". Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  98. "As buyers shun SUVs, expect to pay more for that small car - Cleveland Business News". Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  99. "Bumpy ride for biofuels", The Economist (2008-01-18). Retrieved on 2008-09-14. Archived from the original on 27 October 2008. 
  100. João Gabriel de Lima (2006-02-01). "A riqueza é o saber" (in Portuguese), Revista Veja. Retrieved on 2008-08-19. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008.  Print edition No. 1941
  101. Honda News Release (2003-03-11). "Honda Begins Sales of Flex Fuel Motorcycle CG150 TITAN MIX in Brazil". Honda. Retrieved on 2003-03-11.
  102. Agencia EFE (2003-03-11). "Honda lançará moto flex ainda neste mês no Brasil" (in Portuguese), Folha Online. Retrieved on 2003-03-11. 
  103. "Honda lança no Brasil primeira moto flex do mundo" (in Portuguese), UNICA (2003-03-11). Retrieved on 2003-03-11. 
  104. 106.0 106.1 Reese Ewing and Lisa Shumaker (2009-04-29). "Motorcycle joins Brazil's biofueled fleet", Reuters. Retrieved on 2009-04-30. 
  105. "Honda lança primeira moto bicombustível do mundo" (in Portuguese), G1 Portal de Notícias da Globo (2008-03-11). Retrieved on 2003-03-11. 
  106. 108.0 108.1 "Worldwide Prius Cumulative Sales Top 2M Mark; Toyota Reportedly Plans Two New Prius Variants for the US By End of 2012". Green Car Congress (2010-10-07). Archived from the original on 11 October 2010. Retrieved on 2010-10-07.
  107. Christie Schweinsberg (2011-06-07). "U.S. Hybrid Sales Hit 2 Million Mark". Ward's. Retrieved on 2011-06-07.
  108. "Toyota sells One-Millionth Prius in the US". Green Car Congress (2011-04-06). Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  109. "Honda Insight Concept Hybrid Vehicle to Debut at Paris International Auto Show" (PDF), Honda Corporate Press Release (2008-09-14). Retrieved on 2009-05-29. [dead link]
  110. James B. Treece and Lindsay Chappell (2006-05-17). "Honda Kills the Insight", AutoWeek. Retrieved on 2008-01-10. 
  112. "Honda Insight: America's most affordable hybrid at $19,800". Honda. Motor Authority (2009-03-10). Archived from the original on 14 March 2009. Retrieved on 2009-03-21.
  113. Crippen, A. (December 15, 2008) "Warren Buffett's Electric Car Hits the Chinese Market, But Rollout Delayed For U.S. & Europe" CNBC. Retrieved December 2008.
  114. Balfour, F. (December 15, 2008) "China's First Plug-In Hybrid Car Rolls Out" Business Week. Retrieved December 2008.
  115. Alisa Priddle (2010-11-30). "GM to hire 1,000 in Michigan", The Detroit News. Retrieved on 2010-11-30. 
  116. Bill Vlasic (2010-11-30). "G.M. to Hire 1,000 to Engineer More Electric Cars", New York Times. Retrieved on 2010-11-30. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. 

External links

Smallwikipedialogo.png This page uses some content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Alternative fuel vehicle. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Tractor & Construction Plant Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons by Attribution License and/or GNU Free Documentation License. Please check page history for when the original article was copied to Wikia