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AMC Eagle
1987 AMC Eagle wagon burgundy-woodgrain NJ
Manufacturer American Motors: 1979-1987
Chrysler: August–December, 1987
Production 1979–1987
Assembly Kenosha, Wisconsin, United States (1980-1983)
Brampton, Ontario, Canada (1984-1988)
Class Compact / crossover SUV
Body style(s) 2-door coupé
2-door liftback
2-door hatchback
4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
2-door convertible
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Engine(s) 150 cu in (2.5 L) AMC I4
151 cu in (2.5 L) GM Iron Duke I4
258 cu in (4.2 L) AMC I6
219 cu in (3.6 L) VM I6 turbodiesel
Transmission(s) 4-speed manual
5-speed manual
3-speed TorqueFlite automatic
Overdrive (diesel only)
Wheelbase 97.2 in (2,469 mm) liftback/kammback
109.3 in (2,776 mm) coupe/sedan/wagon
Length 166.6 in (4,232 mm) liftback/kammback
186.2 in (4,729 mm) coupe/sedan/wagon
Width 72.3 in (1,836 mm) coupe/sedan/wagon
73.0 in (1,854 mm) liftback/kammback
Height 55.2 in (1,402 mm) liftback/kammback
54.4 in (1,382 mm) coupe/sedan
54.6 in (1,387 mm) wagon
Fuel capacity 21 U.S. gal (79 L/17 imp gal) liftback/kammback
22 U.S. gal (83 L/18 imp gal) coupe/sedan/wagon
Related AMC Concord
AMC Gremlin
AMC Hornet
AMC Spirit

The AMC Eagle is a compact-sized four-wheel drive passenger vehicle that was produced by American Motors Corporation (AMC). The AMC Eagle line of vehicles inaugurated a new product category of "sport-utility" or crossover SUV.

Introduced in August 1979 for the 1980 model year, the coupe, sedan, and station wagon body styles were based on the AMC Concord. In 1981 the two-door subcompact-sized AMC Spirit-based models, the SX/4 and Kammback, joined the Eagle line. The Sundancer convertible conversion was available during 1981 and 1982.

The AMC Eagles were the only four-wheel drive passenger cars produced in the U.S.[1] They were affordable cars offering a comfortable ride and handling on pavement together with superior traction in light off road use through AMC's innovative engineering and packaging.[2]

For the 1987 model year the Eagle was manufactured by the Chrysler Corporation retaining the AMC badging. Production of the Eagle continued until December 14, 1987, and was marketed through early 1988.

HistoryEdit

The conceptEdit

Eagle dirt 02

Eagle wagon in off-road duty

The Eagle came about when Jeep's chief engineer, Roy Lunn, joined a Concord body with a four-wheel drive system.[3] Such a vehicle was a logical step for AMC, according to then CEO Gerald C. Meyers, as a second energy crisis had hit in 1979, and sales of AMC's highly profitable truck-based Jeep line dropped in part to their low fuel efficiency, leaving AMC in a precarious financial position.[1] The Eagle provided a low-cost way of bridging the gap between AMC's solid and economical, but aging, passenger car line and its well-regarded, but decidedly off-road-focused, Jeep line, as the Eagle used the existing Concord (and later, Spirit) automobile platform.

The Eagle also bridged the sizable price gap between the low-end imported 4WD Subaru and the large-sized domestic four-wheel drive vehicles like the Jeep Wagoneer.[4] The Eagle models provided the biggest new boost to the automaker's profit mix.[1] Sales were brisk since Day One,[4] with the manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP) for the basic 2-door model starting at $6,999 (US$18,655 in 2019 dollars[5]) and the 4-door station wagon at $7,549 (US$20,120 in 2019 dollars[5]).

A first in mass production passenger cars,[6][7] the early AMC Eagles came with a true full-time automatic system that operated only in permanent all-wheel drive. The four-wheel drivetrain added approximately 300 pounds (136 kg) to the Eagle's curb weight.[4] The AMC Eagles were also the first mass produced U.S. four wheel drive vehicles with an independent front suspension.[2]

The AMC Eagle's central differential behind its TorqueFlite automatic transmission was single-speed (without a low-range option) and used a viscous fluid coupling for quiet and smooth transfer of power to the axle with the greatest traction, on wet or dry pavement. The central unit consisted of closely spaced, wavy clutch plates operating in a "honey-like Silicone fluid" performing a "limited-slip function" between the front and rear drives, as well as under adverse driving conditions sending torque to the axle with the most traction.[2]

Designed as "reasonably-size[d] passenger cars" offering a comfortable ride and handling on pavement, the AMC Eagles "behave more like mountain goats" when off the road.[2] The value of four-wheel drive in the AMC Eagle was apparent when driving on slippery conditions and they were used in America's first ice-driving school.[8] The Eagle models provided the comfort and appointments expected of passenger models with off-road technology offering an extra margin of safety and traction.[9]

The AMC Eagles were the first production cars to use the complete Formula Ferguson (FF) full-time all-wheel drive system.[10] Similar vehicles - the Subaru Loyale (1983 and a year later in the U.S.) and much later the Toyota Tercel SR5 Wagon (1983) - only had part-time four-wheel drive systems that could not be engaged on dry pavement. The Eagle was also years ahead of Subaru's simplistic, part-time front-drive/4WD system, due to Roy Lunn's creativity and Jeep's experience producing 4WD vehicles.[3] Another feature was AMC Eagle's independent front suspension that was accomplished by mounting the front differential to the engine block with universal joints and half shafts to drive the front drive wheels.

As the first mass-produced American passenger car with 4-wheel-drive of any type (much less with a system as advanced as the Eagle's was), automotive industry analysts were taken by surprise at the fact that AMC, a company most had deemed past its ability to produce competitive vehicles, turned the best of what they had into a revolutionary, novel, and all-around competent vehicle.[9] In doing so, the small American manufacturer was seen as having cleverly pioneered a new market segment - one that would grow wildly over the next 25 years and beyond, as evinced by Four Wheeler magazine's conclusion in 1980 that the new AMC Eagle was, indeed, "The beginning of a new generation of cars."[11] Even as the automaker was struggling financially, "AMC's reputation for developing vehicles on the cheap is only exceeded by its legacy of midwifing the SUV", including the Eagle to be the precursor to one of the most popular vehicle types on the market.[12] Indeed, the Eagle's basic concept - that of a station wagon with AWD, raised ground clearance, full range of power options and automatic transmissions, as well as rough-road capability - has inspired vehicles like the Subaru Outback and Forester lines, the Audi Allroad, the Volvo XC range, and many others.[3][9] Similarly, motoring journalist Marty Padgett described AMC's car-based 1980 Eagle, combining all-weather capability with better gas mileage, and as "the first crossover" that was succeeded by whole generations of Subaru vehicles and other models,[13]

In a road test of a 2009 crossover vehicle, the AMC Eagle "combined two disparate personalities — rugged childlike playfulness and staunch paternal responsibility — in a way that few thought possible in 1980. And for all the Eagle's lowly heritage, it has set a lasting standard for utility and a friendly, innovative spirit that has eluded most of the compact crossovers on the market today."[14]

Annual changesEdit

1980Edit

Based on the AMC Concord, the 1980 AMC Eagle was available as a four-door sedan and station wagon, as well as a coupe. Standard equipment included power steering and power disk brakes. The Eagle came base and upscale Limited trims, both of which carried the same features as the Concord DL and Limited, respectively. A sports package was available only on the 2-door and wagon models featuring in addition to "Sport" emblems the following items: Durham Plaid fabric seat trim, leather wrapped sport steering wheel, P195/75R15 Tiempo steel belted radial tires, sport fog lamps, halogen highbeam headlamps, dual black remote mirrors, 4X4 sport graphics, black bumpers with nerf strips, black lower body moldings, blackout grille, taillamp paint treatment, side tape stripes, and black moldings on the windshield, rear window, door frames, and B-pillar.

All Eagles came with "Ziebart Factory Rust Protection" as standard that included a 5-year "No Rust Thru" transferable warranty. The cars were built using aluminized trim screws, plastic inner fender liners, galvanized steel in every exterior body panel, and the body went through an epoxy-based primer bath (up to the window line). Eagles were backed by the AMC Buyer Protection Plan, a 12 month/12,000-mile (19,312 km) warranty on everything except the tires.

The drivetrain consisted of one engine, the AMC 258 I6, in conjunction with a three-speed automatic transmission (a version of Chrysler's A998), and Dana 30 and Dana 35 differentials. All 1980 Eagles came standard with a permanent 4-wheel-drive system that employed a New Process 119 transfer case, which had a viscous fluid coupling that allowed the 4-wheel-drive system to operate on wet or dry pavement without causing undue suspension and drivetrain wear. Optional trailer towing packages were available for handling trailers weighing up to 3,500 lb (1,588 kg) that included a weight distributing (equalizing) tow hitch, 7-connector wiring harness, wiring, auxiliary transmission oil cooler, 3.54 axle ratio, and required the optional heavy-duty battery and automatic load-leveling air shocks.

The 1980 Eagle's appearance differed from the Concord's in that the bodies were raised 3 inches (76.2 mm) further off their suspension to afford better ground clearance.[2] To fill in the increased visual space between the tires and wheel wells, AMC used durable Kraton (polymer) plastic wheelarch flares that flowed into rocker panel extensions. The grille was similar to the 1980 Concord's, but with the horizontal bars spaced slightly further apart, and the Eagle graphic mounted to the driver's side-center. Because coupes and sedans carried Concord DL equipment as standard, they also carried the Concord DL coupe and sedan roof treatments, featuring vinyl coverings, and opera windows. However, bumpers were pulled closer to the body than those seen on Concords, due to the Eagle having been classified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a light truck, and was therefore exempt from passenger car regulations that required front and rear bumpers that could sustain a 5-mile-per-hour (8 km/h) impact with no damage. However, as seen on the Concord, black plastic end caps were featured on 1980 Eagle bumpers.

Production for the 1980 model was: 9,956 4-door sedans, 10,616 2-door sedans, and 25,807 station wagons with a grand total of 45,379 units.[15] Detailed information and specifications can be accessed from AMC Data Books.[16]

1981Edit

1981 AMC Eagle SX4

1981 Eagle SX/4 liftback

AMC-Eagle

1981 Eagle station wagon

Changes the standard (Series 30) Eagle lineup for 1981 were notable. The GM 151 cu in (2.5 L) "Iron Duke" inline-four engine became standard equipment, as AMC's 258 cu in (4.2 L) I6 became optional. The I6 was redesigned to produce more low-end torque, as well as made smoother running, more economical, and required less maintenance.[17] The engineering improvements to the venerable AMC engine also reduced its weight by 90 pounds (41 kg) to 445 lb (202 kg), thus making it "the lightest in-line Six in the domestic industry".[18]

All Eagles took on a new plastic eggcrate-style grille divided into 24 squares at the front. The Eagle name moved to the grille header bar. Bumpers were updated so that their end caps flowed smoothly into the Kraton plastic wheelarches and rocker panel trim. The Sport package, carried over from 1980 on all three body styles, used the Spirit's hood and grille header bar trim starting in 1981.

Two smaller subcompact models, the AMC Eagle Kammback, based on the AMC Spirit sedan (née Gremlin), and the sporty Eagle SX/4, based on the Spirit liftback, debuted as "Eagle Series 50" models. The Kammback and SX/4 came standard with GM's 151 cu in (2.5 L) "Iron Duke" 4-cylinder engine, 4-speed manual transmission, and power steering. The Series 50 Eagles reflected the styling updates that the larger Series 30 models showed for 1981. The SX/4 model was available with a Sport package, as well.

At the beginning of the model year, all Eagles carried over the new-for-1980 permanent all-wheel drive system with viscous fluid coupling that protected the suspension or driveline components from wear during dry pavement use. A "Select Drive" option, which allowed the Eagle to run in 2-wheel-drive (RWD) mode and be switched to 4-wheel-drive via a dashboard switch, was offered as a fuel economy measure at midyear. However, Select Drive required the vehicle to be stationary when switching between 2-wheel and 4-wheel-drive.

Production was: 5,603 Kammbacks, 17,340 Liftbacks, 2,378 2-door sedans, 1,737 4-door sedans, and 10,371 station wagons for a total of 37,429 units.[19]

1982Edit

1982 AMC Eagle

1982 Eagle SX/4

New low-drag disc brakes were featured as standard equipment. A 5-speed manual transmission joined the options list. The optional automatic transmission received wider gear ratios for better fuel economy. All received as standard equipment the Select Drive system that could be changed between all-wheel drive and two-wheel drive for a potential increase in fuel economy. The Series 30 sedan was no longer available with the Sport package.

Even with the choice of two wheelbase versions and five body styles, the most popular model was the wagon with 20,899 built out of total Eagle production of 37,923 for the 1982 model year. Other production was: 520 Kammbacks, 10,445 Liftbacks, 1,968 2-door sedans, and 4,091 4-door sedans.[20]

1983Edit

AMCEagle-front

AMC Eagle coupe

Few changes were seen for 1983. The Series 50 Eagle Kammback and Series 30 Eagle coupe were both dropped from the line, due to slow sales. The Series 30 Eagle sedan lost its Limited trim line, leaving only the base model in the Eagle sedan line. The Series 50 SX/4 and Series 30 wagon continued basically unchanged. All were measures to save production costs by pruning the slow-selling models from the line, thereby streamlining their processes by reducing production variations, and therefore, complexity.

Starting in February 1983, the AMC 150 cu in (2.5 L) I4 theoretically replaced the GM Iron Duke 151 under Eagle hoods as the standard engine, though the installation rate is unknown. The 258 cu in (4.2 L) I6 was improved for better performance by increasing the compression ratio to 9.2 to 1 (from the previous 8.2 to 1), as well as a fuel feedback system, a knock sensor, and the CEC); thus allowing the continuing use of regular-grade fuel.[21]

A long-term road test by Popular Mechanics began with the editors describing that the "Eagle is best when working hard" and "you can feel the tremendous traction" of its big all-weather tires in four-wheel drive giving "a great feeling of security."[21]

Production was: 2,259 Liftbacks, 3,093 4-door sedans, and 12,378 station wagons for a total of 17,730 units in 1983.[22]

1984Edit

AMC Eagle sedan blue r

AMC Eagle 4-door sedan

The Series 50 SX/4 was dropped for 1984. This left only the base Series 30 Eagle sedan and wagon, and a Limited wagon. Now that the SX/4 was gone, only the wagon carried the Sport option package.

For 1984, the 258 cu in I6 was optional in place of the 150-cubic inch (2.5 L) AMC I4, and was more popular. The four-cylinder engine was installed in only 147 Eagles, but allowed AMC to advertise its fuel economy of 24 mpg-US (9.8 L/100 km/29 mpg-imp) city and 30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km/36 mpg-imp) highway with the four-speed transmission and 32 mpg-US (7.4 L/100 km/38 mpg-imp) with the five-speed on the highway.[23] The Select Drive system was redesigned to allow Shift on the Fly.

All Eagle models were now built in AMC's original factory in Brampton, Ontario, Canada because the automaker's main Kenosha plant was used for the Renault Alliance and Encore models.

Production was: 4,241 4-door sedans and 21,294 station wagons totaling 25,535.[23]

1985Edit

AMC Eagle wagon burgundy int

AMC Eagle's "Shift on the Fly" dashboard switch mounted near the steering column

Exterior styling was slightly revised as all models used the "power bulge" hood, seen previously on the 1981-83 Eagle Series 50 models. The grille header bar and hood ornament/trim strip were deleted in the process. "Shift-on-the-Fly" capability was added to the Select Drive 4-wheel-drive system as standard equipment. A new key-fob-activated infrared remote keyless system with power locks was newly available as an option. Radios with digital tuning were also introduced.

The standard powertrain was now the previously optional 5-speed manual, with the wide-ratio 3-speed automatic still available as a popular option. The AMC 258 I6 became standard. However, Eagle sales began to drop as AMC was no longer aggressively promoting the models.[24]

Production was for the 1985 model year: 2,655 4-door sedans and 13,335 station wagons, for a total of 16,990 units.[24]

1986Edit

American Motors introduced the open differential Model 128 transfer case for the Eagle. The automatic transmission no longer had a lockup torque converter. Eagle sales would drop beneath the 10,000 annual unit mark for the first time for 1986 (and would slide further for its remaining two seasons on the market), as the car was aging due to its seven-season life atop a platform that debuted for 1970.

Production was: 1,274 4-door sedans and 6,943 station wagons, for a total of 8,217 units.[25]

1987Edit

Though AMC debuted its new fuel-injected 4.0 L (242 cu in) I6 engine for 1987, the new engine did not make it under the venerable Eagle's hood. The 258-cubic inch (4.2 L) I6 remained the sole engine available in the eight-season-old Eagle sedan and wagon. No major changes were seen on the 1987 Eagle, as American Motors turned its attention to the debut of the imported Renault Medallion. The buyout of the company by Chrysler Corporation took effect officially in August 1987.

Production for the 1987 model year was: 454 4-door sedans, and 5,468 or 4,564 (varies with source) station wagons, for a total of 4,564 to 5,922 (varies with source) units.[26]

1988Edit

Nicks88eagle

1988 Eagle Wagon

1988 AMC Eagle door plaques

1988 Eagle door plaques continued to use AMC branding

The sedan and Limited wagon were dropped after the 1987 model year, leaving the base wagon as the only available Eagle in 1988, its final season and now under Chrysler's ownership. The car's name was officially changed from AMC Eagle to Eagle Wagon; however, all of the AMC badges, build sheets, and door plaques were carried over. The VIN was no different under the new corporate owner, other than the digit for the year. Although the paperwork that came with the 1988 Eagles continued to indicate that American Motors Canada, Ltd. built them, the company as named ceased to exist, since it became a subsidiary of Chrysler in the buyout, as did all AMC properties. The final car rolled out of AMC's original "Brampton Assembly Plant" plant in Brampton, Ontario on December 14, 1987.

Standard equipment in 1988 that was previously optional included air conditioning system, rear window defroster, halogen headlamps, AM/FM stereo radio, light group (glove box, dome, and engine lights), and adjustable steering wheel. The following remained optional equipment for the 1988 production: power windows, power seats, power mirrors, radio with cassette player, cruise control, rear window wiper, wood grain side panels, floor mats, headlamp warning buzzer, and intermittent wipers.[27]

Total 1988 model year production was 2,306 units, all station wagons.[28]

ConvertiblesEdit

1981 AMC Eagle convertible beige NJ

1981 Eagle convertible

During 1981 and 1982, a Sundancer conversion convertible was available. The Eagle's monocoque (unibody) body was reinforced and a steel targa roll bar was welded to the door pillars for passenger compartment protection. The front portion of the roof was a removable lightweight fiberglass hatch, while the rear section of polyvinyl material and the back window folded down and had a boot cover when in the down position.[29]

The conversions were approved by AMC with the cars ordered through select AMC dealers in the customer's selection of options and colors.[30] The conversion cost approximately $3,000 and the dealer's list price was $3,750.[31] The conversion was performed by the Griffith Company headquartered in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, that was also responsible for the "Sunchaser" Toyota Celica convertible.[32] Both Griffith conversions are considered coach convertibles.

Turbo DieselEdit

Another factory-approved conversion was the 1980 turbodiesel. The 219 cu in (3.6 L) engines producing 150 hp (112 kW/152 PS) and 224 pound-feet (304 N·m) of torque were supplied by VM Motori. Only about seven are thought to have been manufactured; two are accounted for in one of the AMC Eagle clubs.[33] The literature for the conversions noted the cars would be equipped with larger fuel tanks, which together with diesel economy and an optional overdrive transmission, would give the cars up to 1,500-mile (2,414 km) range.[33] The $9,000 price tag for the conversion limited its market appeal and it was discontinued.[33]

This VM diesel is unrelated to the later 2.1 L Renault turbo diesel I4 as used in the Jeep Cherokee (XJ) beginning in 1984.

LegacyEdit

Total AMC Eagle production was 197,449 units[15] in one generation. Although the original AMC Eagle was not produced after 1988, the Eagle brand, as part of the newly-formed Jeep-Eagle division of the Chrysler Corporation, would soldier on.[34] This division included a combination of Renault-based vehicles (Eagle Medallion and Eagle Premier), re-trimmed Mitsubishis (Eagle Summit, Eagle Summit Wagon, Eagle Talon, Eagle 2000GTX (Canada only), and Eagle Vista (Canada only)), and one Chrysler-designed vehicle (Eagle Vision).

After the AMC-based 4-wheel-drive Eagle wagon was dropped, Chrysler would continue the concept loosely in spirit by offering all-wheel-drive optionally on the Mitsubishi-based 1990-98 Eagle Talon, the Canadian-market 1989-91 Eagle Vista wagon, and 1992-96 Eagle Summit Wagon.

The brand became too much of a disharmonious mish-mash of vehicles from different companies, sporting different characters, and never really attained much brand equity or recognition. People commonly made the mistake of calling them "Jeep Eagles", as they were doubtless confused by the brand being sold alongside Jeep and "Jeep Eagle dealership" being a common phrase used in period commercials. Due to the lack of recognition, sales never met expectations, and Chrysler quietly killed the Eagle brand after the 1998 model year.

CollectibilityEdit

AMC Eagle Wagon blue wood grain 258 cid 5-speed

AMC Eagle Wagon 5-speed

As used cars, the AMC Eagles were "not intended for heavy-duty boulder bashing" and established a reputation as unique 4-wheel-drive passenger cars "with proven AMC bodyshells and running gear".[35] AMC Eagles are collected for purposes of nostalgia, status, pleasure,as well as function.[9]

The Eagle shares many parts and components with other Jeep and AMC models. There are many active AMC car clubs and specialized vendors for service and reproduction parts. While surviving Eagles are no longer depreciating, they do not seem to be appreciating rapidly – except for the 1980-84 Sundancer convertible.[9]

In the Pacific Northwest,Northeast,and Midwestern United States, Canada, and Alaska, AMC Eagles are still abundant and in service over 20 years after production ceased.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Smallwikipedialogo This page uses some content from Wikipedia. The original article was at AMC Eagle. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Tractor & Construction Plant Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons by Attribution License and/or GNU Free Documentation License. Please check page history for when the original article was copied to Wikia

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "AMC a longtime loser starts to roar", Newsweek: 207. 1979, http://books.google.com/books?id=LzPkAAAAMAAJ&q=But+the+biggest+new+boost+to+the+profit+mix+is+the+AMC+Eagle,+the+only+four-wheel-drive+passenger+car+produced+in+the+US. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="2 April 2011">2 April 2011</time>. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Jacobs, Ed (September 1979), "4WD AMC Eagle - passenger comfort, all-weather capability", Popular Science 215(3): 90-91, http://books.google.com/books?id=MAEAAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA90&dq=AMC+Eagle+specifications. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="2 April 2011">2 April 2011</time>. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Sherman, Don (February 2001), "All-Wheel-Drive Revisited: AMC's 1980 Eagle pioneered the cross-over SUV", Automotive Industries, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3012/is_2_181/ai_70935228/?tag=content;col1. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="2 April 2011">2 April 2011</time>. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Lamm, Michael (April 1980), "PM Owners Report: AMC Eagle", Popular Mechanics 53(4): 102-103 and 193-194, http://books.google.com/books?id=1dkDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA102&dq=PM+Owners+Report:+AMC+Eagle. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="3 April 2011">3 April 2011</time>. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2008. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
  6. The Jensen FF, a low-volume (318 built between 1966 and 1971) right-hand drive grand tourer, was first with a full-time all-wheel drive system and although it had sports car handling and an edge in safety, it was not commercially successful. Source: Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (25 July 2007). "1966-1971 Jensen FF". Retrieved on 28 August 2010.
  7. The full-time four-wheel drive in the Audi Quattro Coupe, which also debuted in 1980 in the European market (introduced in 1982 in North America with total sales of 287 units), was a limited production model available only with a five-speed manual transmission. Source: Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (17 July 2007). "1980-1991 Audi Quattro Coupe". Retrieved on 28 August 2010.
  8. Schuon, Marshall (11 March 1984). "Teaching the skills of driving on ice". Retrieved on 29 September 2010. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Sass, Rob (9 March 2008). "A Breed of 4-by-4 Hatched on the Fly". Retrieved on 3 April 2011. 
  10. Rettie, John (August 1987), "Four-Wheeling Into Your Future", Popular Mechanics 164(8): 58, http://books.google.com/books?id=AuQDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA56&dq=First+production+car+FF+system+AMC+Eagle&hl=en. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 September 2010">29 September 2010</time>. 
  11. Foster, Patrick R.. "AMC Eagle 4wd: Underfunded before its time". Autoweek Magazine. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. Retrieved on 28 August 2010.
  12. Padgett, Martin (2004). Hummer. Zenith, 26. ISBN 978-0-7603-1863-8. Retrieved on 2 April 2011. 
  13. Padgett, pp. 242–243.
  14. Magrath, Mike (15 January 2009). "2009 Suzuki SX4 Long-Term Test". Edmunds Inside Line. Retrieved on 28 August 2010.
  15. 15.0 15.1 "1980 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagle Nest. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
  16. 1980 AMC Data Book and AMC's Flipchart featuring the 1980 AMC Eagle
  17. Witzenburg, Gary (September 1980), "Driving the new AMC models", Popular Mechanics 154(4): 100, http://books.google.com/books?id=RtQDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA100&dq=Driving+the+new+AMC+models+1981. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="3 April 2011">3 April 2011</time>. 
  18. Witzenburg, p. 180.
  19. "1981 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagle Nest. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
  20. "1982 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagle Nest. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
  21. 21.0 21.1 "PM long-term car tests", Popular Mechanics: 174, 176. June 1983, http://books.google.com/books?id=itUDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA170&dq=AMC+Eagle&hl=en. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 September 2010">29 September 2010</time>. 
  22. "1983 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagle Nest. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
  23. 23.0 23.1 "1984 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagle Nest. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
  24. 24.0 24.1 "1985 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagle Nest. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
  25. "1986 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagle Nest. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
  26. "1987 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagle Nest. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
  27. Sources: 1987 dealer brochure and the 1988 addendum to the 1987 dealer brochure. Note: There was no separate sales booklet published for the 1988 model year.
  28. "1988 AMC Eagle History". AMC Eagle Nest. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
  29. "American Motors", Cars & Parts 45. 2002. 
  30. (2005) in Consumer's Guide: History of the American Auto. Publications International, 532. ISBN 978-0-7853-9874-5. 
  31. Lamm, Michael (July 1981), "Hardtops to ragtops; the rebirth of the convertible!", Popular Mechanics 156(1): 71, http://books.google.com/books?id=59gDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA70&dq=AMC+Eagle+Sundancer&hl=en. Retrieved on <time class="dtstart" datetime="29 September 2010">29 September 2010</time>. 
  32. Lamm. p. 118.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 "1980 AMC Eagle Turbo Diesel". AMC Eagle Nest. Retrieved on 2 April 2011.
  34. "Chrysler Planning Eagle's Phase-Out" (20 September 1997). Retrieved on 29 September 2010. 
  35. Gillis, Jack (1992). The Car Book 1993. HarperCollins, 40. ISBN 9780062730060. Retrieved on 2 April 2011. 

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